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Transcript of Quebec Nationalism
Three pillars of Quebecois
1) Catholic Church
3) French Language
What it did:
a) United Canadiens spiritually and ideologically
b) Promoted agrarian society
c) Ran the hospitals, orphanages, & schools.
Maurice Duplessis Era 1950s
- Supported traditional life, agriculture, & Catholic Church.
- Quebec a “distinct society,”
just another prov.
Intro. "New" Quebec Flag (1948)
1960s Jean Lesage & "Maitre Chez Nous"
) Arts focused
) Studs. take Math &
Catholic Church loses influence
"Masters of our Own House"
2) Canada was becoming overwhelmingly English
1) The richest people in Que. were English
Issues in Quebec during the Duplessis Era:
FLQ - 1970s
2) The New Flag (1965)
1)"Bi - Bi" Commission (1963)
: To make Fr. Can feel wanted,
Can. should become "Officially Bilingual."
Que. felt Can. flag too British
Responses to the Quiet Revolution
Felt gov. was pandering to the French.
Felt unwanted, flew the
Fleur de Lis
1) Creates Official Languages Act (1969): Can. now officially bilingual.
: Not received well in Western Canada
Que. not "special"
British diplomat James Cross &
Pierre Laporte kidnapped.
Trudeau uses the War Measures Act - Canada on verge of "Revolution"
Troops sent in to occupy streets on Montreal
Pierre Laporte found dead
Abductors caught, but twas a "political hot potato," so allowed to flee to Cuba.
Parti Quebecois (PQ) 1976
#1 Goal: negotiate Que. independence
Bill 101: French only Official language in Quebec
Most schools now only taught in French
Results: 60%Non / 40% Oui
Trudeau promises change in the way Canada treats Quebec
"The Government of Quebec has made public its proposal to negotiate a new agreement with the rest of Canada, based on the equality of nations; this agreement would enable Quebec to acquire the exclusive power to make its laws, levy its taxes and establish relations abroad — in other words, sovereignty — and at the same time to maintain with Canada an economic association including a common currency; any change in political status resulting from these negotiations will only be implemented with popular approval through another referendum; on these terms, do you give the Government of Quebec the mandate to negotiate the proposed agreement between Quebec and Canada?"
Trudeau wanted to Patriate the Constitution to replace BNA.
Also creates the "Charter of Rights and Freedoms"
But Quebec & other provinces concerned about being able to opt-out.
Quebec did not sign on
Notwithstanding Clause: Allows Federal or Provincial Government to opt out a clause in the Charter.
To get Quebec to sign the constitution; Meech Lake (1987 - 1990):
Charlottetown Accord (1992):
Brian Mulroney agreed to certain amendments to bring Quebec into the Constitution.
Main concession: Acknowledge Quebec as a distinct society. Controversial - But it would protect French culture.
Conservative Prime Minister
1995 Quebec Referendum
If Quebecers are distinct, so should Aboriginal groups
Most provinces agree to the Accord, but Manitoba.
Second Attempt to get Quebec in the constitution
National Referendum: "To vote against would put the Nation's unity at risk."
54.5% of Canada REJECT the Accord (Strongest opposition in BC)
Would ALWAYS give Quebec 25% of the seats in HOC, regardless of population
Bloc Quebecois (1990)
Lucien Bouchard betrays Mulroney and forms the BQ
Following the failure of Meech Lake, Separatist sympathy rises to 64%
Support for Quebec Independence high in 1995
Referendum led by PQ Premier Jaques Parizeau & Lucien Bouchard
Why? Failed attempts on bringing Quebec into the constitution - Quebecers feel unwanted.
PM Jean Chretien implores Quebecers to vote "Non!"
Final vote: 50.48% vote to stay in Canada
49.52 % to separate!
Manitoba School Act 1896
Louis Riel Execution 1885
Fall of New France 1766
The Civil Law - Parisian code of civil law; the only only prov. in Canada to have it.
Origins of Nationalism
To speak in a language is to understand the culture
: Eng. minority ctrl. businesses.
: Province "Nationalizes" key industries like Hydro.
So where are we now?
In other words Harper acknowledged Quebecois as
"a distinct nation WITHIN Canada."
Current Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau...
The Naval Services Act (1910)
: Can. built ships; but Brits could use if needed.
: Conscription Crisis: Quebec opposed
: Conscription Plebiscite: Quebec opposed
Trudeau Gov. responses in the 1970s
Who: Extremist Nationalist group
Why: Independent Que.
A more moderate approach by Quebec Nationalists
[You don't need to write these down]
Things are going to change
Lester B. Pearson
Responses to the New Flag: