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Mixed Methods Methodology
Transcript of Mixed Methods Methodology
When to Use a Mixed Methods Design (Creswell, 2012)
Created by: Madelaine, Dustin & John W
Scientific method - Confirmatory or Top-Down
Ontology - Scientific realism, search for truth, justification by empirical confirmation
Human behavior - Regular and predictable
Research objectives – numerical description, causal explanation, prediction
Interest – identify general scientific laws
Form of data collected – quantitative data using structured and validated data-collection instruments
Nature of data – variables
Data analysis – identify statistical relationships among variables
“Narrow angle lens” – focus on few causal factors at the same time.
For more information on Quantitative vs Qualitative Research, please watch the video below.
- Convergent: quantitative and qualitative data are collected simultaneously
- Explanatory: quantitative, followed by qualitative
- Exploratory: qualitative followed by quantitative
- Embedded Design: One methodology (quan\qual) embedded within the other (quan\qual)
The Type of Multi-Method Approach Depends Upon Four Factors (Terrell, 2012)
1. Theoretical perspective
- Explicit –based firmly on a theory
- Implicit –based indirectly on a theory
2. Priority of strategy
3. Sequence of data collection implementation
- Qualitative first
- Quantitative first
- No sequence
4. The point at which the data are integrated
- At data collection
- At data analysis
- At data interpretation
- With some combination
Need to be aware of ethical issues pertaining to both quantitative methods and qualitative methods (Creswell, 2012)
Qualitative: obtaining positions, protecting anonymity of respondents, , not disrupting sites, and communicating for the purposes of the study
Quantitative: conveying the purpose of the study, avoiding deceptive practices, respecting vulnerable positions, being aware of potential power issues in data collection, respecting indigenous cultures, not disclosing sensitive information, and masking the identities of participants.
Ethical Issues Unique to Designs (Creswell, 2012)
Convergent design: Quan. and Qual. samples sizes may be different. Be sure not to minimize importance due to size.
Explanatory design: large quantitative database for initial phase. Follow up with qualitative interviews can only happen if there is an identifier link to the quantitative database. Some people may not want their info released. Using issues without permission is an ethical issue.
Embedded design: conducting initial qualitative interviews to build an intervention before an experiment may help design the intervention. Using the information to place a person in a group where they do not receive beneficial treatment presents an ethical issue
Additional Ethical Concerns (Terrell, 2012)
Participants must participate voluntarily.
Participants must understand purpose and procedures of the study.
Participants must understand that they have the right to a copy of the results.
Participants must understand the potential benefits of the study and that their privacy will be respected.
Researchers must understand the impact of their presence at research sites and ensure that these sites are left undisturbed at the end of the study.
Care must be taken to identify and nullify any actual or perceived issues where power between the researcher and participant could be abused.
Anonymity must be maintained during data analysis and data kept for a reasonable period of time.
Ensure that writing is free of bias towards any group (e.g., age, ethnicity, sexual orientation, race, gender, etc.)
The details of the study must be careful explained within the actual report so as to allow readers the opportunity to judge the ethical quality of the study for themselves.
123RF (2013). Retrieved from http://www.123rf.com/clipart-vector/criticism.html
Bloorview Research Institute (2012). Retrieved from http://www.hollandbloorview.ca/research/scienceandethicsreview/
Boud, D., & Falchikov, N. (2013). Quantitative studies of student self-assessment in higher education : a critical analysis of findings. Higher Education, 18(5), 529–549. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lib.ucalgary.ca/stable/pdfplus/3447392.pdf?acceptTC=true&acceptTC=true&jpdConfirm=true
Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE. Thousand Oaks. USA.
Echo Hub (2012). Retrieved from http://echohub.com/posts/communication/criticism-under-review/
Edutech Wiki (2012). Retrieved from http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Mixed_methods
Emerald (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/content_images/fig/2160140101004.png
Management Ink (2013). Retrieved from http://managementink.wordpress.com/category/hospitality-management/
Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research. Sage.
Terrell, S. R. (2012). Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies. The Qualitative Report, 17(1), 254–280. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ973044
YouTube (n.d.). Retrieved from www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlU22hTyIs4
What is it all about?
Three major research methods:
Quantitative research relies primarily on collection of quantitative data, with a focus on hypothesis and theory testing with empirical data
Qualitative research relies on collection of qualitative data , used to understand people’s experiences and their perspectives when little is known about a topic
Mixed research blends the qualitative and quantitative methods , using both exploratory and confirmatory methods.
According to the Persian philosopher Rumi, (The Essential Rumi, 1995), the different perspectives can all have truth values and putting together the three of them will bring more “light” and a wider vision of the research.
Emphasis on Quantitative Method
What is Quantitative
Quantitative Research refers to the systematic empirical investigation of social phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. (Wiki, 2009)
It produces information only on the particular case studies and more general conclusions are hypotheses, which can be verified through different quantitative methods: ask specific questions, collects quantifiable data, -where data are in the form of numbers and statistics-, analyzes these data and conducts the inquiry in an objective manner.
In this type of research the researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for.
Evolution through Time
"There is no such thing as Qualitative Data; everything is either 1 or 0!"
A comprehensive analysis of 12 scientific articles published in the top two American Sociology Journals between 1935 and 2010, found that roughly two thirds of these articles used quantitative methods.
Quantitative research is generally made using scientific methods such as:
the generation of models
theories and hypotheses
the development of instruments and methods for measurement
experimental control and manipulation of variables
collection of empirical data
modeling and analysis of data
Although Quantitative investigation of the world has existed since people first began to record events or objects that have been counted, the modern idea of quantitative processes have their routes in Positivist framework.
Positivism emphasis the use of the scientific methods through Observation to empirically test hypothesis, explaining and predicting WHAT? WHERE? WHY HOW and WHEN the phenomena occured.
Late 19th Century: -- Rise of Surveys
Early 20th Century: -- Simple Experiments
Mid 20th Century: -- Tests to Quantify
-- Longitudinal Designs
In the 1930s retail panels were established
in the 1950s computers started to affect quantitative research by the use of spread sheets.
from the 1980s data mining became a common place and graphic classifications known as "acon" emerged
1990s brought arguments between quantitative vs qualitative researchers who argued upon which method was "the best".
Egon Guba (1990) emphasized that
all educational methods are characterized by their distinctive ontology, epistemology or methodology and they can be used together, fact which contradicted the "purists" ideas - the two approaches cannot co-work because of differences in worldviews or philosophies associated with them-.
Retrieved from YouTube.com
Examples Within the Design Types
Step one: Determine if I mixed methods study is feasible.
Step two: Identify a rationale for mixing methods.
Step three: Identify the data collection strategy.
Step four: Develop quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods questions.
Step five: Collect quantitative and qualitative data.
Step six: Analyze data separately, concurrently, or both.
Step seven: Write the report as a one or two phase study or a multiple phase study
Determine if a mixed methods study is feasible...
Will complexity be appreciated?
Is there enough time?
Do you have skills in both methods?
Identify a rationale for mixing methods...
What is reasoning for mixed methods design? Must be a specific need or reasoning.
Identify the data collection strategy...
Priority to quantitative and qualitative data
Sequence of data collection (or is it concurrent?)
Specific methods of data collection
Develop quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods questions...
Typically both exploratory and analytic-variable questions
Pose both quantitative and qualitative questions
Pose a mixed method question
Collect quantitative and qualitative data...
Follows rigorous quantitative procedures and persuasive qualitative procedures
Sequence of data collection depends on type of design
Strong organization required
Analyze data separately, concurrently, or both...
Can be done in multiple ways and sequences
See possible techniques listed upcoming image of table 16.2 (Creswell, 2012)
Write the report as a one or two phase study or a multiple phase study...
Two phase study: one section on problem and literature, then another on data collection, analysis, and interpretation. One quantitative and one qualitative phase is used for each section.
One phase: problem statement has a need for qualitative and quantitative research. Research questions are posed with both methodologies. Data collection integrates both methodologies. Data analysis tries to converge the two databases. Form the results and interpretation to answer research problem.
Types of Research (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003)
Two Phase Design
Concurrent Mixed Method Design
Concurrent Mixed Model Design
Concurrent Nested Design
Concurrent Triangulation Design
Conversion Mixed Model Design
Fully integrated mixed model design
Mixed Method Design
Mixed model design
Multilevel mixed methods design
Multilevel mixed model design
Multimethods QUAL study
Multimethods QUAN study
Multiple methods design
Parallel mixed model design
Sequential explanatory design
Sequential exploratory design
Sequential Mixed Method Design
Sequential Mixed Model Design
Transformative mixed methods design
For further descriptions of these types of research designs visit
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A Mixed Methods Research Article
What is it?
Stating a knowledge claim means that researches have an idea of what they are going to learn and how this process will occur (Creswell, 2003)
Mixed methods use a pragmatism position because it uses:
- real world data in research
- is centered around a central problem being studied
- it uses both quantitative and qualitative data
Retrieved from (Creswell, 2003)