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Steffon Campbell

on 21 September 2016

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To explain socialization, objectivity and fairness
Culture is the sum total and result of influence, opposition and power through the subjective interactive transference of shared meaning between human beings, which leads to consensus/resistance among a group of people.
Cogito ergo sum
I think, therefore I am...
Final Destination
Doesn’t conscious participation force you to make subjective judgment?

No. All seven must work together. We must experience that which we write or speak and people will more likely believe us. They will know that we are speaking from experiential knowledge.

To establish a relationship among
the three concepts
To understand the difference
between objectivity and fairness, specifically in journalism
The manifestation of history in a particular place and time. It is tied together by political institutions, cohabitation, communication and culture.

Positivists: "We are all tabula rasas, shaped by the world"
World view
Interpretivists: "We shape
our own worlds"
Critical Theorists: "We are what those in power want us to be"
Whatever your view...
No one was born into a void. We were all born in some social situation or context.

No society leaves socialization of its young to chance because they would run the risk of self-destruction.

But what IS socialization?
The process through which we inculcate values, attitudes, habits, beliefs, mores (i.e. customs or conventions regarded as essential characteristic of a community) into a group.

It is that extended learning process by which the rules of behaviour in a society,
and all the demands of its culture, are incorporated into the psychological organization of the individual participating in the social order – a long term process.

(Pauses to catch breath)
In other words...
It is the process by which one learns one’s culture and how to live in it.

Socialization plays a critical role in cognition
(how we come to know what we know).

We are socialized to live.
Institutions of socialization
Family (primordial institution of socialization. The structure will determine how you’re socialized.)
Religious institutions (church, mosques, synagogues, temples, etc.)
Political institutions
Media (powerful tools of socialization. It presents an aspect of reality, not reality in totality.)

Socialization & Culture
Anthropologists have long observed the outstanding difference between Western and Eastern perception of self and their social world (Shweder and LeVine, 1984).
Eastern vs Western Culture:
American – “The squeaky wheel gets the grease”
Japanese – “The nail that stands out gets pounded down.”

In trying to get the reluctant child to eat:
American – “Think about the many starving children in Africa.”
Japanese – “Consider how badly the farmer who had worked so hard to produce their food would feel if they refused to eat it.” (Kunda, 1999)
To increase employee productivity:
American employer – “Look in the mirror before coming to work each day and say ‘I am beautiful’ 100 times.”
Japanese employer – “Begin each day by telling a fellow employee, ‘You’re beautiful’” (Markus and Kitayama, 1991)

What about the Caribbean perspective of self and others?

Media & Objectivity
As a social institution, the media have a powerful impact on our values and judgment.
As a result of our geographical location, the values and perspectives of Caribbean people are strongly shaped by media.
Can media practitioners be objective?
Each journalist sees the world through his own/unique perspective which is based on his experiences.
The relationship we have to that being observed also shapes our perspective and/or our story. The total picture will have to be seen from all sides. Our limitations affect objectivity.
‘Right and wrong’ therefore poses a problem.

If we can’t be objective, should we settle for mere subjectivity?

Values Clarification
...the process we use as analysts and social observers to achieve fairness.

Strive for fairness
Admit and state bias/perspective openly.
Scrutinize your values in relation to the context. We have to know where we stand contextually.
Learn to accept criticisms from other perspectives. They help you to develop. Get as many views as possible to cover the facts. This approach leans to credibility.
Use scientific method where possible to verify evidence.
Storytelling- Tell the story coherently - from beginning to end. It helps to order the facts.
Consciously participate in the social process i.e. you have to frame reality in a fair manner.
Bear in mind, as media consumers, we get messages that are “re”-presentations of reality.

Campbell, 2013
Campbell, 2013
Obama Administration
Assad Regime
Mentally unstable
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