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WM - Black American Blues (Gospel/Field Holler)
Transcript of WM - Black American Blues (Gospel/Field Holler)
Turn off and put away phones
Group 1 - melody
Group 2 - rhythm
Group 3 - timbre
Group 4 - structure
Group 5 - texture
Group 6 - text
Group 7 - ornaments
Group 8 - other
New Bethel Baptist (Black)
Fellowship Independent Baptist (White)
African American Style
lining out (a type of call and response)
learned "by ear"
movement (sway freely)
timbre is unique
form: stanzas (verses)
"tune is playful—ebbing and eddying like the ocean tide" - Titon
White American Style
The leader's timbre is unvarying and course.
The tune follows a measured rhythm.
Variations/ornaments are rare and deliberate.
It is not call and response.
What does that suggest about transmission?
Why would Fellowship Independent have music books and New Bethel not have music books?
What is the difference in aesthetics between the two music-cultures?
How does an African American Baptist church service unfold?
deacons' devotional: improvised prayer that starts as speech and turns to chant with regular meter and the congregation joins in with a call and response
announcements, offerings, and readings with gospel songs interspersed
sermon by preacher with "whooping," congregation joins in
invitational song, new members, benediction
choir joins hands and sings "Amen"
Mahalia Jackson inspired them all.
from the Black Worship Tradition
"I Have a Dream" Speech
August 28, 1963
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Civil Rights Era
End of Segregation
100 Years after the end of slavery in the US
5 years before he was assassinated
Baptist Preacher's Sermon
What can we infer is the difference values concerning the relationship between and individual and God?
Black Baptist Service
Hymn: a serious song of praise to God.
Gospel song: a lively song that focuses on Christian life.
Hymns vs. Gospel Songs
Songs of Worship, Black Baptist
improvisation is valued
call and response (lining out)
strophic form (usually)
everyone sings: preacher, deacon, choir & congregation
way of connecting with the Holy Spirit
Not present today in the US due to machines replacing humans for hard labor
Documentation of work songs in 18th-century West Indies, then 19th-century US
English sea songs and African work songs
Masters and overseers encouraged work songs. Why?
Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) quote, p. 158
African American Work Songs
Work Song (groups) - ex. Rosie
Field Hollers (individuals or groups) - ex. Field Holler
Two Types of Work Songs
Soundscape: Swinging axes & voices
Text: Concerns of an inmate over girlfriend
Alan Lomax (1915-2002)
How does the music serve the work?
Interview with inmate. pg. 160
Transmission: travel through oral tradition
Text: includes slang, some subversive, show dreams of being elsewhere
Soundscape: stereo in the background
Rhythm: free, non-metrical (usually for solo work)
Field Holler - "Baby Boo" Caston