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WRITING COHERENTLY

ESTHER KARIUKI
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ESTHER KARIUKI

on 3 June 2017

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Transcript of WRITING COHERENTLY

ACADEMIC WRITING
WRITING THE TERM PAPER
The structure
How to dive into academic writing
The Body of the text
Insert your own content into the frames provided
Add Title Here
1
Chronological
; Description of a process or sequence

2
Classification
; Categorising objects or ideas

3
Common denominator
; Identification of a common characteristic or theme

4
Phased
; Identification of short-/medium-/long-term aspects

5
Analytical
; Examination of an issue in depth
(situation – problem – solution – evaluation – recommendation)

6
Thematic
; Comment on a theme in each aspect

7
Comparative/contrastive
; Discussion of similarities and differences (often within a theme or themes)
Works Cited

Connor , R., & Glenn, C. (1992). The St. Martin's Guide to Teaching Writing. New York, USA: St. Martin's Press Inc.


McMillan , K., & Weyers, J. (2010). How to write Essays and Assignments. Essex, Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited. Retrieved August 29, 2015, from http://usc.ac.ir/IPPWebV1C035/TemplateFileFolder/11-20-2012/OriginalFolder/e514d8e1-7779-46f0-be0a-7b955825b21f_HowtoWriteEssays&Assignments.pdf
Examples of
unethical communication include:
SELF ANALYSIS
structure of an academic text
Writing coherently;
Paragraphing;
• Write short individual paragraphs
• Analyze academically written texts for style
A standard academic text has an introduction, main body and conclusion
The importance of the introduction
This is the first contact that your reader makes with you as the
author of the text. This means that it has to be well organized and clear.

The introductory section is ‘work in progress’ because, until you complete the entire text, you cannot really introduce the whole work accurately.

Therefore it is better to start writing the main body, move on to the conclusion, and then write the introduction.
(McMillan & Weyers, 2010)
Generally, this should consist of three components:

a brief explanation of the context of the topic;
an outline of the topic as you understand it;
an explanation of how you plan to address the topic in this particular text – in effect, a statement of intent.
Components of an Introduction
(McMillan & Weyers, 2010)
The seven most common structural approaches for written assignments
Chronological approach
An example of the chronological approach would be describing a developmental process, such as outlining the historical development of the European Union.
This kind of writing is most likely to be entirely descriptive
Classification approach
An example of this approach could be to discuss transport by subdividing your text into land, sea and air modes of travel.

Each of these could be further divided into commercial, military and personal modes of transport. These categories could be further subdivided on the basis of how they are powered
Analytical approach
This conventional approach might be used to approach complex issues
Developing the Analytic Approach
The Analytic Approach is particularly helpful in the construction of essays, reports, projects and case studies.
This approach helps you to ‘deconstruct’ or ‘unpack’ the topic and involves five elements:

Situation: describe the context and brief history.
Problem: describe or define the problem.
Solution: describe and explain the possible solution(s).
Evaluation: identify the positive and negative features for each solution by giving evidence/reasons to support your viewpoint.
Recommendation: identify the best option in your opinion, giving the basis of your reasoning for this. This element is optional, as it may not always be a requirement of your task
Thematic approach

This themes identify characteristics.

Precise details would depend on the nature of the question, but possible examples could be:

social, economic or political factors;
age, income and health considerations;
gas, electricity, oil, water and wind power
BLOOMS TAXONOMY OF THE THINKING PROCESS
Try to be analytical, not descriptive
Many students lose marks because they simply quote facts or statements, without explaining their importance and context, that is, without showing their understanding of what the quote means or implies.
(McMillan & Weyers, 2010)
Within the structure of the text, each paragraph will be introduced by a topic sentence stating the content of the paragraph.
The topic sentence

It announces the main idea of the paragraph followed by subsidiary sentences that develop or illustrate the main idea. There should be unity, coherence and development.
(Connor & Glenn, 1992)



Topic Sentence
Sign Posts

Use of ‘signpost words’, which guide the reader
through the logical structure of the text.
Examples of signpost words

Addition - additionally; furthermore; in addition; moreover

Cause/reason - as a result of; because (mid-sentence)

Comparison - compared with; in the same way; in comparison with; likewise

Condition if; on condition that; providing that; unless

Contrast - although; by contrast; conversely; despite; however; nevertheless; yet

Effect/result - as a result; hence; therefore; thus

Exemplification - for example; for instance; particularly; such as; thus

Reformulation - in other words; rather; to paraphrase

Summary - finally; hence; in all; in conclusion; in short; in summary

Time sequence - after; at first; at last; before; eventually; subsequently

Transition - as far as . . . is concerned; as for; to turn to

These are alternative methods of laying out an argument:

Deductive model: the writer moves from the key point and follows it with supporting information or evidence.
Inductive model: the writer presents the supporting information and concludes with the key point.

You might choose one or other of these methods to suit your context and content of your topic.
Deductive and inductive paragraph models
The essay should be planned carefully so it has a logical structure.
The construction of sentences and paragraphs should contribute to the overall cohesion of the text.
Topic introducer sentence - Introduces the overall topic of the text (generally in the very first paragraph)

Topic sentence - Introduces a paragraph by identifying the topic of that paragraph

Developer sentence - Expands the topic by giving additional information

Modulator sentence - Acts as linking sentence and is often introduced by a signpost word moving to another aspect of the topic within the same paragraph

Terminator sentence - Concludes the discussion of a topic within a
paragraph, but can also be used as a transition sentence where it provides a link to the topic of the next paragraph
Types of sentences
A paragraph is a unit of text usually comprising several sentences. It has
a topic that is outlined in the first sentence;
the topic is developed further within the paragraph; and the paragraph concludes with a
sentence that terminates that topic or, possibly, acts as a link to the topic of the following paragraph
What is a paragraph?
(McMillan & Weyers, 2010)
Topic introducer sentence - Introduces the overall topic of the text (generally in the very first paragraph)

Topic sentence Introduces a paragraph by identifying the topic of that paragraph

Developer sentence Expands the topic by giving additional information

Modulator sentence Acts as linking sentence and is often introduced by
a signpost word moving to another aspect of the topic within the same paragraph


Terminator sentence Concludes the discussion of a topic within a paragraph, but can also be used as a transition sentence where it provides a link to the topic of the next paragraph
Some types of sentences that are used to make up a paragraph
Overall neatness
Does the draft carry out the assignment?
The cover-page details and presentation aspects are as required
The bibliography/reference list is correctly formatted.
intext citation is used correctly
Page numbers have been included (in position stipulated, if given)
Line spacing is correct
Font used is correct
Number of pages is correct
TERM PAPER REQUIREMENTS
INCOHERENCE IN PARAGRAPHS
Incoherence is when paragraphs skips from idea to idea resulting in a jumbled mass of information.

(Connor & Glenn, 1992)
Analyse the paragraphs in your drafts, what roles do the sentences play?

3 questions to ask about every paragraph?

Is the role of each sentence in the context of the surrounding sentences evident to the reader?
Do the words that connect the sentence to the surrounding sentences accurately characterize the role?
Is the role useful? Could the paragraph do without this sentence?

Each paragraph performs a function.
For example,
some may describe,
others may provide examples,
while others may examine points in favour of a
particular viewpoint and
others point against that viewpoint.
(Connor & Glenn, 1992)
[linking sentence]
Although it could be
[signposting word]
argued that there is much evidence to support the upholding of gender stereotypes in radio,
[topic sentence]
the female DJ may give a voice to women which challenges the stereotypical view of the female as passive.
[evidence with reference]
Barnard (2000) suggests that

“. . . the depiction of women in the commercials . . . reveals radio’s true perception of and attitude towards the female listener.”

[development sentences]
His suggestion here would be that daytime radio tends to reinforce gender stereotypes; however the decision to hire Zoe Ball to host the BBC Radio 1 Breakfast Show in 1997 reflects a decision to redress the balance. Ball’s image as being a hardened drinker and her controversial lifestyle have been cited as contributing to what became known in the late 1990s as the ‘ladette culture.’
[concluding sentence and reference to the question]
This
[signposting word]
suggests then that gender representation on mainstream primetime radio may have a significant impact on British popular culture (Calcutt 2000).
● Plagiarism. Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s words or other creative products as your own. Note that plagiarism can be illegal if it violates a copyright , which is a form of legal protection for the expression of creative ideas.
● Omitting essential information. Information is essential if your audience needs it to make an intelligent, objective decision.
● Selective misquoting. Distorting or hiding the true intent of someone else’s words is unethical.
● Misrepresenting numbers. Statistics and other data can be unethically manipulated by increasing or decreasing numbers, exaggerating, altering statistics, or omitting numeric data.
● Distorting visuals. Images can be manipulated in unethical ways, such as making a product seem bigger than it really is or changing the scale of graphs and charts to exaggerate or conceal differences.
● Failing to respect privacy or information security needs. Failing to respect the privacy of others or failing to adequately protect information entrusted to your care can also be considered unethical (and is sometimes illegal).
Writing at university means:

developing your powers of analysis;
being more critical about what you read and write;
developing and being prepared to express your own ideas and perspectives;
thoroughly familiarising yourself with your subject’s literature by reading beyond what is assigned to you;
constructing detailed, well-conceived arguments with a clear rationale and
adequately supported with strong evidence;
producing writing that is well organised and easy to understand;
including correctly formatted references to the literature;
creating appendices for information too large or incidental to be placed in the
main body of your text;
writing (often) to strict word limits. (Murray 2012)

Generally, a new paragraph represents a shift of focus by the writer
which is usually the result of one of the following:

a new argument;
a new point in a sequenced argument containing a series of logical steps
or thought processes;
a new stage in a process or procedure, or a discrete element of a
description;
an alternative point of view;
a discussion or explanation of each point or item in a list – one paragraph
for every point/item.

Write a term paper on one of the following cause and effect essay:
_ the reasons why something happened;
_ how certain consequences might have been avoided;
_ the reasons for decisions;
_ the implications of particular actions;
_ potential problems associated with a certain view or course of action;
_ the significance and/or implications of taking a particular stance on
something – either theoretical or practical.

Writing at university means:
Developing your powers of analysis;
Being more critical about what you read and write;
Developing and being prepared to express your own ideas and perspectives;
Thoroughly familiarizing yourself with your subject’s literature by reading beyond what is assigned to you;
Constructing detailed, well-conceived arguments with a clear rationale and adequately supported with strong evidence;
Producing writing that is well organized and easy to understand;
Including correctly formatted references to the literature;
Creating appendices for information too large or incidental to be placed in the main body of your text;
Writing (often) to strict word limits

A good argument will normally follow a series of steps as follows:

Every sentence in a paragraph has a function.
The most common roles are:
State
Restate
Support
Refute
Evaluate
Identify a cause or result
Compare or contrast
Summarise
Conclude

Every sentence in a paragraph has a function.
The most common roles are:
State
Restate
Support
Refute
Evaluate
Identify a cause or result
Compare or contrast
Summarise
Conclude
be placed in context;
show awareness of the relevant literature;
be clearly articulated;
be well reasoned and logically watertight;
acknowledge other perspectives;
be concise, to the point and unambiguous;
use persuasive language;
avoid extravagant claims.

be placed in context;
show awareness of the relevant literature;
be clearly articulated;
be well reasoned and logically watertight;
acknowledge other perspectives;
be concise, to the point and unambiguous;
use persuasive language;
avoid extravagant claims.

Capital letters
Rule no. 1: Use a capital letter at the beginning of a new sentence:
The words we know form part of our internalised grammars.
Every language has word classes. They are a universal feature of languages.
Rule no. 2: Use capital letters for proper nouns or adjectives (e.g. people, places, book titles, theories, organisations, institutions):
Rule no. 3: Use capital letters at the beginning of main words (sometimes called ‘content words’) in titles:
Rule no. 4: Use capital letters for titles and the abbreviated forms of proper names:
Dr Remick Professor Stupor Associate Editor the U.S. TESOL
Sir William Jones


Rule no. 1: Use commas to separate items in a list. Before the last item in a list a comma is unnecessary:
Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions are often referred to as ‘parts of speech’.
Whereas English developed out of Anglo-Saxon, the Romance languages, such as French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Romanian, had their origin in Latin.

Rule no. 2: Use commas to separate introductory phrases from the sentences they introduce:
Despite considerable research having been done in the area, second language acquisition has to date had little impact on pedagogy.
Having discussed the various theories that appear in the literature, McKay states categorically that Accommodation Theory offers ‘the best account of any theory currently on offer’.
Although an utterance may not appear to be relevant superficially, we assume nonetheless that it is relevant at a deeper level.

Rule no. 3: Use commas after connecting words and phrases which show a clear relationship between two clauses or sentences. Such connecting words include: however, ... nevertheless, ... therefore, ... for this reason, ... consequently, ... as a result, ... similarly, ... conversely, ... additionally, ...
The theory, then, was fundamentally flawed; however, it did serve to open up new and productive avenues of inquiry.

Rule no. 4: Use commas after words and phrases such as clearly, obviously, sadly, unfortunately, without a doubt, which say something about your attitude or feeling: Unfortunately, Freedman fails to explain adequately how he draws the conclusions he does from his data. Chomsky has, without a doubt, had a greater impact on linguistics in the last fifty years than anyone else. Obviously, this research is in need of replication.

Rule no. 5: Use commas after first(ly), second(ly), third(ly), finally, etc. Secondly, the fact that a sound is marked does not automatically render it less important for intelligibility. Finally, there is the argument which states that grammar cannot be acquired through an explicit focus on form.

Rule no. 6: Use commas to separate and distinguish additional or incidental information inserted into a sentence: Affixes, the subject of section three, are a good example of this tendency in language. Behaviourism, which was to become part of the theoretical basis of Audiolingual methodology, was most closely associated with Skinner. It was, needless to say, this coincidence of events within different and very diverse disciplines that led to a shift of paradigm.


Every sentence in a paragraph has a function.
The most common roles are:
State
Restate
Support
Refute
Evaluate
Identify a cause or result
Compare or contrast
Summarise
Conclude

Commas

Rule no. 1: Use semi-colons to indicate pauses longer than those associated with commas but shorter than those associated with full-stops:
Example;
Language never fossilizes; it constantly changes and adapts in response to the purposes for which its users choose to employ it.
In the above example, you’ll notice that there’s a very close connection between the idea that appears before the semi-colon and the one that appears after it. The idea following the semi-colon appears to expand on or explain the idea preceding it, and so the semi-colon effectively indicates the closeness of that relationship. Although it’s always possible to substitute a semicolon with a full-stop, in doing so you lose the opportunity to make that relationship more explicit to the reader.

Rule no. 2: Use semi-colons immediately before linking words such as however, moreover, furthermore, nevertheless, therefore and instead:
It appears, then, that all children learn a first language unless they suffer some kind of physiological impairment; furthermore, the research suggests that in doing so they all follow an invariable developmental sequence – a natural order of acquisition.

Rule no. 3: Use semi-colons to separate items in a list, where the list of items is long and/or each item in the list is too long to be separated by a comma:
People have to be taught to observe, whether it be the doctor learning to observe and ‘read’ the human body; the artist learning to observe and ‘read’ great paintings; or the geologist or geomorphologist learning to observe and ‘read’ the landscape.

Semi-colons


Rule no. 1: Use colons to introduce explanations or examples:
The essay will look at a number of different learner factors including:
age motivation aptitude preferred learning style previous language learning experience

The term ‘propositional structure’ relates to:
(1) the type of ‘state’ or ‘action’ described by the sentence;
(2) the ‘participant roles’ involved in the state or action
Other phrases that are often followed by a colon include ‘for example: ...’, ‘Consider this example: ...’ and ‘There are one/two/three such cases: ...’.


Rule no. 2: Use colons to introduce quotations: He acknowledges that his tasks are factual and rational in meaning-content and that they require no procedures for increasing emotional involvement, but adds:
‘This does not imply any denial of value to emotional involvement in learning.’
In this regard, Brown argues that: For complex social and psychological reasons, they are less sure that they have grasped the topic being spoken of, the opinion being expressed about it, and the reasons for the speaker wanting to talk about it.

colons
Parentheses
Rule no. 1: Use parentheses when citing references in your text: This phenomenon has been described as ‘a normal facet of language development and thus one to which all languages are susceptible, irrespective of whether or not it is perceived as desirable or acceptable’
(Franklin 2007, p. 67)
.


Rule no. 2: Use parentheses to identify and enclose information which is relevant to, but additional and slightly peripheral to, the main idea of a sentence.
Searle develops this idea during his discussion of the ‘speech act’
(a concept originating in the work of philosopher John Austin)
, and it has since been further refined.

Rule no. 3: Use square brackets to enclose information which is not part of the original quotation: Havelock states that ‘it
[Murdoch’s account]
ignores many factors necessary in a detailed description of communication by language’.

Inverted commas (quotation marks)
The use of double or single quotation marks is really a matter of convention rather than rule. In some cases double inverted commas are used as the first level of quotation mark and single inverted commas as the second level (i.e. a quotation within a quotation); in other cases the opposite is true.
Hyphens
Rule no. 1: Use hyphens in compound words (word units of more than one word) Compound words can be categorised according to these types: numerical: seventy-eight, twenty-three thousand, one-fifth, two-thirds

Particular subjects on the curriculum can be seen as different sub-cultures in which reality is variously reformulated. (nominal) The writing of seventy-five second-language students from five firstlanguage backgrounds was monitored and all instances of article use recorded. (numerical/adjectival).

Rule no. 3: Use a hyphen when you have to split a word across two lines: Like definitions generally, definitions of applied linguistics have sought not only to describe but are inevitably normative, reflecting how the writer thinks the world ought to be.

Dashes

Rule no. 1:
Use dashes to enclose information that is incidental or additional to the main idea of a clause or sentence:
In normal circumstances of communication – where there is successful uptake – most language users do not analyse language in this way. Audio-lingual methods are based on an isolation of language structure – a declarative knowledge which teachers seek to convert into procedural knowledge by pattern practice and the use of drills.

Rule no. 2: Use dashes as an alternative to the phrases ‘for instance’, ‘for example’, ‘such as’ or ‘that is to say’, when illustrating a point with specific examples: Cross-linguistic examples of this kind also exist which may suggest subtly different cultural perceptions: nuclear waste in English is uncountable;
the near equivalents in Spanish – desechos radiactivos and residuos radiactivos – are both countable and plural
. Franco speaks of meaning that is a product of the relationship between an expression and the cultural situation in which it is used – pragmatic meaning.

Apostrophes
Rule no. 1: Use apostrophes to
indicate the omission of one or more letters
: It’s the spoken language which is fundamental in the sense that human beings normally learn to speak before they learn to read or write.

(Here, the apostrophe substitutes for the missing ‘i’ in the word ‘is’.)
She’s
been bilingual since she was eight years old. (Here, the apostrophe replaces the ‘ha’ in ‘has’.) After just two years here,
they’ve
become fluent in the language. (And here, the apostrophe replaces the ‘ha’ in ‘have’.) Although there will be times when you need to use them (if you are transcribing, for example), you should know that, generally speaking, the use of shortened forms is discouraged in academic writing, as it is generally associated with more casual writing. So, instead of writing ‘She’s’, for example, write the full form ‘She is’.


Rule no. 2: Use apostrophes to
indicate ownership or possession
: The islanders’ language differed markedly from that of the nearest mainland community. Juan’s Spanish was more colloquial than his brother’s.

TERM PAPER RESEARCH TOPICS

1. Internet and social networks as a way of fleeing boredom or exhaustion.
2. Technological advances that improve communication and interpersonal relations.
3. What are the criteria for the use of social networks in the family?
4. Mobile phones and family sociability.
5. The rise of mental illness: the devastating burden of patients suffering from estrangement from reality.
6. Permanent connection as a danger to productivity and efficiency.
7. Addictions and excesses in consumption: the flight from reality. Escapism and “the right to entertainment”.
8. Speaking or texting. Internet friendships: friendship online and offline. Virtual life and real life: identity, anonymity and narcissism.
9. The difficult art of listening in an era of direct messages.
10. Are the social networks only changing our ways of expression, or our ways of thinking as well?
11. Care for personal security in networks and protecting personal data.
12. The economic crisis as a crisis of values.
13. Responsibility in the Internet: is it possible? Is it necessary?
14. The abstract definition of freedom of expression and journalism without ethical boundaries. Should the media aim for the truth or limit themselves to not lying?
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