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Transcript of Native Studies
40,000-45,000 years old
Lived as nomads and as hunter-gatherers
Developed tools for hunting
Concept of a traditional marriage Brought diseases
Indigenous people were displaced
Forced to submit to Western culture Introduction Dark skin, hair and eyes
Recorded over 500 tribes
Well-known as traders and often traded things
like stones, shells, weapons, freshly-hunted
food Food Hunting A primary tool was the spear, launched by a woomera or spear-thrower in some locals.
The non-returning ones were more powerful than the returning kind
Could be used to injure or even kill a kangaroo. Well-balanced
They ate a variety of plants, vegetables and fruits.
Both men and women hunted
Women collected fruits, seeds, vegetables and insects
Men collected birds, kangaroos, emus etc European Settlement Europeans came to Australia
Area became the nation of Australia in 1901
Aboriginals were not classified as Australians
In 1967, they won the right to vote
In 1970, Aboriginals spoke out for equal rights and land rights
1n 1970. Aboriginal Land Rights Act was passed
By 1980's, forced assimilation was considered wrong
The 1990s witnessed further rights milestones, including government legislation that returned a great degree of independence, increased wages and welfare benefits to aboriginal people.
The government ordered social experts to hold inquiries
Aboriginal people could not completely get their culture back even after all the struggles Aboriginal Spirituality
Close relationship to the land
Culture of storytelling and art
A difficult colonial history Similarities between the Aboriginal groups Aboriginal Artwork It includes sculptures, bark, rock paintings and rock carvings.
They can be found in places as Amhem Land, Ubirr, and Nourlangie.
It has been very famous and many people live on the income they earn from Native artworks. Aboriginal Music Often recognizable for its most famous instrument, the didgeridoo.
A wind instrument typically made from bamboo, it extends about five feet and produces a low, vibrating hum.
Aborigines use didgeridoos in formal ceremonies at such events as sunsets, circumcisions, and funerals. Ceremonies Initiation Ceremony
Men's law and Women's law
Aboriginal Funeral Ceremonies
Aboriginal Festive Ceremonies
Aboriginal Dance and Song Ceremonies Language • more than 250 languages spoken by Indigenous Australians prior to the arrival of Europeans.
• 50% of indigenous Australians speak English while 11% of indigenous Australians speak an indigenous language
• Main language: Pama–Nyungan Family Structure • Hundreds of cultural differences in Australian Aboriginal culture
at least 300 different Aboriginal groups in Australia.
• Respect is one thing that is dominant in all Aboriginal families. There are cultural protocols to follow regarding funerals/condolences/births.
Belief System: The End Aboriginal Spirituality God
Importance of Nature
Dreamtime Comtemporary Issues • Stolen Generations
• Life Expectancy
• Substance abuse Beliefs • Indigenous belief systems center on the ‘Dreaming’ or ‘Dreamtime’ to explain life and the origin of the world. • Dreaming describes the actions and travels of these beings
• These beliefs have governed every aspect of Indigenous peoples’ lives and relationships with the land.