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Korean Verbs

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by

Alyssa Kopervos

on 26 September 2013

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Transcript of Korean Verbs

Modals
"Expresses the speaker's attitude, judgment, and assertion beyond the simple declaration of fact." - Kim-Renaud pg 111

Volitional -겠
나는 그 사람하고는 절대로 결혼 안 하

다.
I
will
never marry that person.
Prediction -겠
그렇게 많이 먹으면 죽

다.
If you eat that much, you
will
die.
Retrospective -더
데이트 하

남자가 이상하게 없어졌다.
The guy that I
used to
date mysteriously disappeared. (더 + (으)ㄴ)
Korean Verbs!
Types of Verbs
Korean has four types of verbs
action
stative
copulative
existential
Making New Verbs
* Add the suffix -하 to a noun
Noun form: [NP+ 하-]v
조용 quiet + 하다 조용하다 to be quiet
뛰어난 닌자가 되려면
조용해야 한다
.
In order to be a stealthy ninja, you
have to be quiet
.
* Using other verbalizing suffixes:

답 크리스의 자기 비하적인 성격은 정말
영국인 답다
.
Chris's self-deprecating personality
is
very
British(like)
.

스럽 저 산은 왠지
신비스럽다
.
There
is
something
mysterious
about that mountain

거리 한 대 치자 그는
비실거리
며 뒤로 물러났다.
I punched him and he
staggered
backwards
Voice
Verbs are active, passive, or causative.
Tense & Aspect
Present

Past -았, -었, -ㅆ

Perfect Past (PP) -었었

Future -겠, -을거다

Aspect -고있다, -어 있다
Morphology
"Study of the internal structure of words, and the rules by which they are formed." - Fromkin et. al, Chapter 3

Morphemes
Roots
Affixes
Parts of speech
Intonation/stress
Context
Verbs...
The verbs comes last
in the sentence
내가 용을
타고싶어요
.
I
want to ride
a dragon.

읽다가 죽더라도 멋져 보일만한 책을 항상
읽으라
.
Always
read
stuff that will make you look good if you die in the
middle of it.

Verbs can stand alone
죽을래
?
Do you
want to die
?
추워졌어
!
It
got cold
!
찾았다
!
Found
it!
Verbs are Inflected
*Korean is an agglutinative language.

*Glue suffixes to stems to create words

*In English, -ed, -s, -ing

* [[ ]verb stem - [ ]suffixI]verb

춤 추
웠습니다

춰요
Verb suffixes are numerous
* 40+ basic endings, over 400 combinations
* Regular and recurrent
* Grammatical categories include:
Voice
Tense
Aspect
Honorification
Modality
Mood
General Properties
1.) Verbs come last in a sentence.
2.) A verb can stand alone as a sentence.
3.) Verbs are inflected.
4.) There are numerous verb suffixes, but they are regular
5.) The order of verb inflections are presented schematically
* Sentence concluding endings indicate:
1.) Different types of sentences
2.) Expressed relationship
Mood
Action
'do something' or 'something happens'

Transitive - takes an object. Marked by particle 을/를.
나는
사람

신발로
때렸
다.
I
hit

him
with my shoe.

Intransitive - does not take an object
(morpheme in-, to not have something)
토요일 아침 일찍 일어나서 카툰을 보기위해 금요일에 하루 종일 잠만

다.
I slept all day Friday to wake up early Saturday morning and watch cartoons.
Stative
Copulative
Positive
시간은 돈이다.
Time is money.
Cannot stand on its own.
Alternative shapes: (이)에요, (이)예요

Negative
인생은 게임이 아니다.
Life is not a game.
Can stand on its own.
Existential
있다/없다 marks the existence of a noun in a location or to someone

Locational existence/non existence
고양이가 지붕위에

다.
There
is
a cat on the roof.
용이 동굴 안에

다.
There
is not
a dragon in the cave.

Possessional existence
쿠키가

지만 넌 먹으면 안 된다.
I
have
some cookies, but you can't eat any.

Causative
Can be an active or passive.

나는 애기를 울

다.
I made the baby cry.
Active voice because there is also a subject (baby).

나에게 이야기를 읽어줬다.
I had a story read to me.
Passive voice because there is no explicit subject.

Has several forms: -추, -이우, -이, -리, -기, -히, V+게 하다
Past Perfect
-었었/았았/ㅆ었

내 친구가
뚱뚱했었어요
.
My friend
was overweight
(and is no longer).

전화했을 때 이미
떠났었어
.
I
had left
when you called.
Aspect
-고있다 Progressive
저 학생이 술이 너무 마셔서,
노숙하고 있다
.
That student drank too much and is
sleeping on the street
.

-어 있다 Resultative
벽에 줄리어스 시저의 소석고 흉상
결려 있다
.
A plaster bust of Julius Caesar
hangs
on the wall.



Present Tense
Active Verbs:

스타워즈를 보기때문에, 광선검을
가지고 간다
.
We're going to watch Star Wars, so I'm
bringing
my lightsaber.

Stative Verbs:

나는 거미가 정말
무섭다
.
I'm really afraid of spiders.


Past

-았,-었, -ㅆ

통계학 수업이 너무 재미없어서,
기절할 뻔 했다
.
The accounting class was so boring, I
almost passed out
.

너무 많이 먹어서, 배가
터졌어요
.
I ate so much food that my stomach
exploded
.



Future
- 겠
주인공이 꽤 변변치 않아 보일 지라도 한번 그것을 살펴
봐야겠다
.
I'll probably
check it out
, although the actor looks pretty lame.

-을 거다
난 커서 파워 레인저가
될 거야
!
When I grow up, I
will become
a Power Ranger!
Express a state or condition.
Sometimes considered adjectives.

뮤츠를 잡는건 너무
어렵
다.
Catching a Mewtwo is very
difficult
.

Use -어하 when speaking in the third person
나루토가 네지의 죽음을
슬퍼한
다.
Naruto
laments
Neji's death.
(슬프+어하)

Passive
The grammatical subject becomes the recipient, not the source, of the action.

해리 포터

마법

걸었
다.
Harry Potter

cast
a
spell
.

마법

해리 포터
로 인해 걸렸다.
The
spell

was cast
by
Harry Potter
.

Takes several forms: -이, -리, -기, -히, -어 지다, or replacing -하 in certain verbs with -되
Order of Inflections is
Schematic
잡 + 히 + 시 + 었 + 겠 + 더 + 라

잡 - verb stem, to arrest
히 - passive voice
시 - honorifics subject
었 - past tense
겠 - suppositive model
더 - retrospective modal
라 - declarative/plain speech style
Full transcript