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Transcript of Korean Verbs
"Expresses the speaker's attitude, judgment, and assertion beyond the simple declaration of fact." - Kim-Renaud pg 111
나는 그 사람하고는 절대로 결혼 안 하
never marry that person.
그렇게 많이 먹으면 죽
If you eat that much, you
남자가 이상하게 없어졌다.
The guy that I
date mysteriously disappeared. (더 + (으)ㄴ)
Types of Verbs
Korean has four types of verbs
Making New Verbs
* Add the suffix -하 to a noun
Noun form: [NP+ 하-]v
조용 quiet + 하다 조용하다 to be quiet
뛰어난 닌자가 되려면
In order to be a stealthy ninja, you
have to be quiet
* Using other verbalizing suffixes:
답 크리스의 자기 비하적인 성격은 정말
Chris's self-deprecating personality
스럽 저 산은 왠지
about that mountain
거리 한 대 치자 그는
며 뒤로 물러났다.
I punched him and he
Verbs are active, passive, or causative.
Tense & Aspect
Past -았, -었, -ㅆ
Perfect Past (PP) -었었
Future -겠, -을거다
Aspect -고있다, -어 있다
"Study of the internal structure of words, and the rules by which they are formed." - Fromkin et. al, Chapter 3
Parts of speech
The verbs comes last
in the sentence
want to ride
읽다가 죽더라도 멋져 보일만한 책을 항상
stuff that will make you look good if you die in the
middle of it.
Verbs can stand alone
want to die
Verbs are Inflected
*Korean is an agglutinative language.
*Glue suffixes to stems to create words
*In English, -ed, -s, -ing
* [[ ]verb stem - [ ]suffixI]verb
Verb suffixes are numerous
* 40+ basic endings, over 400 combinations
* Regular and recurrent
* Grammatical categories include:
1.) Verbs come last in a sentence.
2.) A verb can stand alone as a sentence.
3.) Verbs are inflected.
4.) There are numerous verb suffixes, but they are regular
5.) The order of verb inflections are presented schematically
* Sentence concluding endings indicate:
1.) Different types of sentences
2.) Expressed relationship
'do something' or 'something happens'
Transitive - takes an object. Marked by particle 을/를.
with my shoe.
Intransitive - does not take an object
(morpheme in-, to not have something)
토요일 아침 일찍 일어나서 카툰을 보기위해 금요일에 하루 종일 잠만
I slept all day Friday to wake up early Saturday morning and watch cartoons.
Time is money.
Cannot stand on its own.
Alternative shapes: (이)에요, (이)예요
인생은 게임이 아니다.
Life is not a game.
Can stand on its own.
있다/없다 marks the existence of a noun in a location or to someone
Locational existence/non existence
a cat on the roof.
용이 동굴 안에
a dragon in the cave.
지만 넌 먹으면 안 된다.
some cookies, but you can't eat any.
Can be an active or passive.
나는 애기를 울
I made the baby cry.
Active voice because there is also a subject (baby).
나에게 이야기를 읽어줬다.
I had a story read to me.
Passive voice because there is no explicit subject.
Has several forms: -추, -이우, -이, -리, -기, -히, V+게 하다
(and is no longer).
전화했을 때 이미
when you called.
저 학생이 술이 너무 마셔서,
That student drank too much and is
sleeping on the street
-어 있다 Resultative
벽에 줄리어스 시저의 소석고 흉상
A plaster bust of Julius Caesar
on the wall.
스타워즈를 보기때문에, 광선검을
We're going to watch Star Wars, so I'm
나는 거미가 정말
I'm really afraid of spiders.
통계학 수업이 너무 재미없어서,
기절할 뻔 했다
The accounting class was so boring, I
almost passed out
너무 많이 먹어서, 배가
I ate so much food that my stomach
주인공이 꽤 변변치 않아 보일 지라도 한번 그것을 살펴
check it out
, although the actor looks pretty lame.
난 커서 파워 레인저가
When I grow up, I
a Power Ranger!
Express a state or condition.
Sometimes considered adjectives.
뮤츠를 잡는건 너무
Catching a Mewtwo is very
Use -어하 when speaking in the third person
나루토가 네지의 죽음을
The grammatical subject becomes the recipient, not the source, of the action.
로 인해 걸렸다.
Takes several forms: -이, -리, -기, -히, -어 지다, or replacing -하 in certain verbs with -되
Order of Inflections is
잡 + 히 + 시 + 었 + 겠 + 더 + 라
잡 - verb stem, to arrest
히 - passive voice
시 - honorifics subject
었 - past tense
겠 - suppositive model
더 - retrospective modal
라 - declarative/plain speech style