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Transcript of SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE
What you should already know...
Science studies the
world and testable ideas.
Scientists ask questions that can be tested.
A scientific explanation is one that is falsifiable (capable of being tested, verified or falsified, by experiment or observation).
A scientific explanation MUST rely on evidence available to everyone so others can test it.
Empirical evidence is evidence that is gained first hand through observation and experimentation (observations, measurements, and other types of data).
Personal feelings and opinions are NOT empirical evidence.
Scientists show creativity in designing experiments and explaining observations.
The everyday meaning of a theory is a hunch or opinion about how or why something happens.
A scientific theory is a well supported
about the natural world.
Proven facts support theories.
Theories help predict future observations and facts.
-Example: Periodic table
-Example: Plate tectonics
Scientific theories survive a great deal of testing.
The best theories are able to adapt to explain new observations and facts.
A scientific model is a
of something in the natural world.
Models help scientists study things that are too large, too small, or to difficult to study otherwise.
In science, models do not need to be physical things.
-Example: Computer program or mathematical equation
Models can help with understanding past, present, and future events.
-Example: Maps as models can help scientists understand what earth looked like in the past.
Considering the Source!
What makes good scientific knowledge?
-Good scientific knowledge does not last forever. Scientific theories and models change over time with new evidence.
-Most scientists today would agree that all scientific knowledge is incomplete.
-The goal of science is to attempt to explain as much as possible and to be open to change as new evidence arises.
What makes a good scientific source?
-Reliable sources must be separated from unreliable sources.
-Generally, information from government or university sources can be trusted.
-Be cautious with publications more than a few years old as scientific knowledge changes over time.
-Be cautious with information provided by those trying to sell a product.
An everyday law is a rule that is enforced with penalties.
A scientific law describes a basic principle of nature that always occurs under certain conditions.
Scientific laws are eternal, unchangeable, and tell you EXACTLY what to expect.
Scientific laws can be expressed in a variety of ways (sentence or formula).
-Example: Fg = G (m1 ∙ m2) / d2
Fg is the force of gravity; G is the universal gravitational constant, which can be measured; m1 and m2 are the masses of the two objects, and d is the distance between them
Scientific Question: Do red and yellow combine to form the color orange?
-White light is actually made of different colors.
-When passing through a prism, the light is bent in a way that separates the colors.
-What two colors is the color orange between?
-Does this observation support the hypothesis that red and yellow combine to form the color orange?
Choose one and explain...
The difference between the law of gravity and the theory of gravity:
The rules within a theory are laws.
Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation will let us calculate the gravitational pull between two objects. It does not tell us anything about why it happens. That is what theories are for.