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Calvin Cycle

The steps of the Calvin Cycle as explained in the Khan Academy video.
by

Paul Epps

on 5 November 2012

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Transcript of Calvin Cycle

Calvin Cycle The goal of the Calvin Cycle is to convert the energy in ATP and NADPH into glucose. 6 Carbon Dioxide molecules combine with 6 Ribulose Biphosphate (RuBP) molecules to make 1. 6 six carbon molecules. CO2 RuBP + = Six Carbon Molecule 2. The Six Carbon Molecule is broken in half by the enzyme RuBisCo. This process requires energy that comes from ATP and NADPH. These molecules act as batteries and carry the information from the Light Dependent Reaction of Photosynthesis. The Six Carbon Molecule is turned into two 3-Carbon molecules called PGALs. ATP NADPH ADP + P. NADP+ and H+. Energy is released to be used by molecules in the Calvin Cycle. is split (hydrolyzed) into When the breaks P away from the ADP releasing energy that was trapped in the Chemical Bonds. That Energy originally came from the sunlight from the light dependent reation. does the same thing. NADPH is split into The energy trapped in the chemical bond is released and used to make PGALs 3. The Six Carbon Molecule is broken down into 12 PGAL molecules. Each of the PGAL molecules has 3 Carbon atoms, several Oxygen atoms, several Hydrogen atoms, and a phosphate molecule (which has one phosphorus and 4 oxygen atoms). PGALs The take one of two paths: 4. Two of the PGALs are separated from the other 10 to make a Glucose molecule. PGALs and combine The PGAL molecules, rearrange to make the Glucose, in the process they lose some of the hydrogen & oxygen atoms. They also lose the phosphate molecule. The result is a molecule with Carbon, and 6 12 Hydrogen 6 oxygen atoms. 5. The other 10 PGALs are rearranged to make 6 RuBP molecules. These molecules combine with 6 new C02 molecules and the process starts over. It does take Energy to rearrange the PGALs into RuBP, this Energy comes in the form of 6 ATP molecules. The Energy for this rearrangement comes from 6 ATP molecules. The ATP release energy when one Phosphate is broken off, leaving an ADP molecule and the Phosphate ATP ADP + P The process of turning Carbon from a gas stage, to a solid stage is called Carbon Fixation. Some of the Glucose is used to store Energy, but some of the glucose is turned into proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. These molecules are made by the addition of other atoms. These molecules are used to make all the parts of a cell.
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