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Cecile Carmona-Pinto

on 8 May 2014

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Mapuche's Resistance Against Colonization
Battle of Maule
It happened around 1471 and 1493, the Inca's fight the Mapuche for 6 days. They are discouraged by constant resistance. Mapuche return home on seventh day victorious. Inca's do not try to cross the river ever again.
Founding of Santiago
Pedro de Valdavia attempted to conquer the Mapuche during the Chilean conquest. This showed the Spaniards true intentions. Santiago was made the capital of Chile, but the Mapuche were not to be conquered. In 1541, Toki Michimalongo freed Mapuche prisoners, destroying Santiago in the process. It was their first military demonstration.
Araucanian War
Treaty in Quillin
Signed in 1641 by the Spanish, this treaty clearly defined Mapuche traditional territory and they were noticed as an independent nation. The Spanish acknowledged their failure to defeat the Mapuche. The Bio Bio river was the border, the Spanish would stay to the North of it. Mapuche then returned any war prisoners. The Spanish did not uphold the treaty, they crossed the border for military incursions and kidnapping of Mapuche to be sold as slaves.
Chilean War of Independence
In 1810, Chileans and Argentinians wanted freedom from Spain. The war lasted around 10 years. They gained economic and political independence. Being now their own nation, all the treaties and legislation's made previously between Mapuche and Spanish had now become abrogated.
Occupation of Araucania

Mapuche Uprising of 1881
This was the last major rebellion of the Mapuche against the Chilean government. Mapuche chiefs came together to fight against injustices being done to their people, rapes and murders. It was planned in March to be done in November of the same year. They attacked several Chilean forts and towns, but failed to win back any land. They were fully colonized.
This was a time of constant struggle between the Spanish and Mapuche, which lasted until the Chilean War of Independence. There was 300 years worth of intermittent battles with mixed results. Mapuche remained independent as the Spanish still pushed for colonization.
There was an agricultural boom due to a demand for wheat and they needed the land so they killed and displaced thousands of Mapuche. Some consider it bringing civilization while others consider it a genocide.
After gaining independence the state of Chile and Argentina ignored the Mapuche. Instead of dividing the land with them they allowed European settlers to take over Mapuche land.
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