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Physiology Of Fitness

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James Sussex

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of Physiology Of Fitness

Physiology Of Fitness
Increased Breathing Rate
Pulmonary ventilation increases during exercise, which increases both the depth and rate of breathing.
-Inspiration centre stimulates muscles and intercostal muscles, this increases the force of contraction and therefore increases the depth of inspiration.
-Expiratory centre stimulates the expiratory muscles, which are the internal intercostal muscles, obliques and rectus abdominus, This causes a forced expiration which reduces the rate of insiration.
Increased Tidal Volume
Tidal volume increases to 3/4 litres during exercise. This increase occurs as the breathing rate increases to try and meet the oxygen demand for the respiring muscles. Increasing the tidal volume allows a greater intake of oxygen and exhale of carbon dioxide which is produced by the respiring muscles.

Accute Exercise Responses
Acute Exercises
Acute exercises lasts for the length of a training session, During this time our bodies respond to the exercise and physical stress of the physical activity in lots of different ways, these are called acute responses.

Increased blood supply
Increased blood supply occurs due to the increase in demand for oxygen and an increase in metabolic activity when exercising.
Increased blood supply will deliver greater amounts ofoxygen as the heart pumps blood quicker around the body. As well as capillaries dilation which allows more blood to flow to the capillaries
Increased Muscle Pliability
Pliable: This relates to the stretchiness of your muscles and connective tissue.

Muscles become more pliable when they become warm, this helps to reduce the risk of injury. This is because during exercise the muscles contract quickly, These fast contractions generate heat, which makes the muscles more pliable.
Activity Response
Activity response is similar to that of the heart rate anticipatory response. At the start of the exercise, the nerves in the brain detect cardiovasular activity, The nerves then send out chemical signals to increase the heart rate, as well as the strength at which the heart is pumping.
This means that more blood, which carries oxygen is delivered to the exercising muscles at a faster rate, Regional blood flow is also altered to meet the correct proportions against the intensity of the activity.
Energy Systems
-Energy Systems: Depending on what type of exercise we do depends on how much energy is produced, for an activity that is long endurance the amount of energy will be lower and produced over a longer period of time than a short exercise which is high intensity and requires short burst of high energy.

A 200m runner uses the lactic acid system,, this kicks in after the atp-pc system which lasts 10 seconds, the lactic acid builds up unitl you stop so you will want to carry on running so you dont suffer from it.


Heart Rate Anticipatory Response
Before exercise, your heart rate usually picks up as a result of the anticipatory heart rate response.
When we think about exercise before we actually start exercising, the nerves that release the chemicals that increase your heart rate. This is because the body anticipates exercise and therefore prepares or the activity, Increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the muscles so that they have an adequate supply of oxygen for when they begin exercising.
Acute responses- Immediate responses to exercise such as an increase in body temperature and heart rate.
Musculoskeletal Response
This system enables the body to move through a system of muscles, bones, tendons, cartilage and ligaments. All of these are controlled by the nervous system. The body moves through different muscle contractions, these contractions are initiated by the nervous system. Every muscle has an insertion in a bone, therefore when the muscle contracts the bone is pulled towards the contracting muscle.

In football your heart rate increases meaning that youre heart works harder. this happens because your working muscles need the oxygen in your bood to keep working.
Respiratory
Cardiovascular
During acute exercise the changes to the respiratory system are as follows:

-Increased ventilation (provided by an increased tidal volume and increased respiratory rate)

-Increased diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the alveolar capillary interface due to an increased surface area and increased concentration gradients of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

At the start of a marathon our heart rate starts to increase, however throughout the race our heart carries on to increase until its at its max. You heart rate is at its highest when you go for the sprint finish.
When we exercise we need more blood to go to our working muscles, this means that our heart will beat more often to try and keep up with the need of blood. We need more blood at our working muscles as the blood contains oxygen. We can train the heart to be able to match the need for this, but we will have to train it over time. Also vasodilation occurs, this means that our blood is being pushed to the skin.

W A marathon runner will have a good cardiovasculr system, this means they wil have a healthy heart rate, there veins and arteries are clear and gaseous exchange works well. Your heart rate at the start will be around 90 beats per a second and by the end of the race and going for the sprint finish your heart rate will be at its highest.


By James and Alex
Increased Range of movement
Changes within joints occur during exercise. Synovial fluid is secreted as a result of joint movement, During exercise the synovial fluid becomes less viscous and therefore the range of movement at the joint will increase.

Most exercises increase your range of motion because they stretch out your muscles, As you carry out teh exercise the muscle will begin to extend more which will allow joints to move further.
Muscle Fibre Micro Tears
Tiny tears occur in muscles when they are put under pressure whilst exercising. These micro tears in the muscle tissue cause swelling, which puts pressure on the nerve endings which results pain. To strengthen muscles you can use specific training, however the body must rest to repair the micro tears and refuels before training.
Phoshpocreatine System
Lactic Acid System
This is a short term energy system that's used when energy is required for a long period of time at a high intensity, however without oxygen it is not sustainable over a long time, it will last up to 90 seconds. This system works by converting the pyruvate produced from the glyolysis of glucose, into lactate, converted by teh enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. The ATP energy system allows exercise of a high intensisty, when your lactate reaches toxic levels your muscle fatigue

This system is the immediate energy system and is used when the activity is high intensity. Oxygen isnt used in the system as the energy is found in the muscles and liver, Creatine phosphate has a high energy bond, when this breaks energy is released. The energy released in this system can almost be immediately replaced, therefore several short bursts of activity can be repeated without the body becoming fatigued.
The Aerobic System
This energy system is a long term energy system which requires oxygen. This system occurs at the mitochondria pf the cells where food is converted into energy. Glycolysis, the link reaction, the krebs cycle and the electron transport chain make up the metabolic reactions called aerobic respiration. It takes a long time for the aerobic system to do this.
It takes a few minutes for the heart to deliver oxygenated blood to the working muscles, therefore the aerobic system is slower to engage in comparism to other energy systems.
Vasodilation/Vasoconstriction
Vasoldilation: Thermoregulation is regulating body temperature; the cardiovascular system plays a role in thermoregulation. If the body temperature becomes too high, blood vessels just under the surface of the skin dilate which means that they increase in size. Due to the increase of surface area, more heat can be transferred across the skin and out into air.

Vasoconstriction: On the other hand, if body tempreature becomes too low the vessels constrict which means they decrease in size. This means less heat will be lost through the transfer across the skin and into the air as there is a smaller surfacer area, therefore more heat remains in the body.
Increases Blood pressure
Blood Pressure=the pressure of blood against the walls of the arteries.
There are two different types of blood pressure; systolic and dyastolic.During exercise both the heart rate and the blood pressure increase, however there are mechanisms that prevent the blood pressure becoming too high, and also bring it down.
Both oxygen consumption and heart rate increase during aerobic exercise to reach the demands of the intensity of the activity. This means that the pulse rate will rise and the blood flow to the muscles increases.
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