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Greek Colonies Section 2

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Scott Caldwell

on 15 October 2015

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Transcript of Greek Colonies Section 2

Greek Colonies Section 2
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Greek Colonies
Between 750 and 550 BC many Greeks settled in distant lands.
The growth of trade and wanting good farmland were two motives.
Each colony became a new polis and spread Greek culture and ideas.
Colonies were founded in Italy France Spain N Africa

Tyranny in the city states
The creation of this new wealthy class led to the rise of tyrants in the Greek City states.
They were NOT oppressive rulers.
The word tyrant in this sense refers to a leader who seized power by force from the ruling aristocrats

Age of Pericles
The Athenian empire expands during age of Pericles
After the Persian defeat Athens became the leader of the Greek World
The Athenians formed a defensive Alliance called the Delian League
Headquartered on the island of Delos

Peloponnesian War
The Greek world came to be divided between Athens and Sparta
They both built different societies
Sparta feared the growth of the Athenian Empire
After a series of disputes the Great Peloponnesian war erupted in 431 BC

Goal
Colonies
They also settled along the shores of the black sea.
Setting up cities on the Hellespont and Bosporus
The most notable was Byzantium which later became constantinople and then Istanbul
Increased Trade
Increased trade and industry in such exports as pottery wine and olive oil and imports such as lumber - grain - and slaves created a new wealthy class of merchants who wanted political power
They found this power hard to get because of the ruling aristocrats
The tyrants seize power
They seized and kept power by using hired soldiers
They built new walls and temples
This glorified their cities and made them popular
End of 6th century BC however the tyrants fell out of favor
Their rule contradicted the rule of law that was a Greek Ideal

End of Tyranny
The end of Tyranny allowed new classes to participate in government
Some city states became democracies ruled by the MANY NOT THE Few
Others became oligarchies RULED BY THE FEW
Athens and Sparta show the differences between these two kinds of Government
Expelling the Persians

Under Athenian leadership the league expelled Persians from almost all of the Greek city - states in the Aegean.
They controlled the Delian League and they in turn controlled all of Athenians and created an empire

Pericles
He was a prime figure in Athenian politics between 461 and 429 BC
Athens expanded its empire
Democracy and culture thrived at home
This so called Age of Pericles was the height of Athenian power and brilliance.
Direct Democracy
Pericles turned Athens into a direct democracy
The PEOPLE participated in Government decision making through mass meetings
Every MALE citizen could participate in the general assembly and vote on major issues

Pericles
The 43k men over the age of 18 made up the assembly. Only a few thousand attended regularly. They passed laws elected public officials and decided on war and foreign policy. Anyone could speak
Ostracism
The Athenians developed ostracism to protect themselves from overly ambitious politicians
If 6k assembly members voted so , a person was banned from the city for 10 years

Delian league Treasury
Pericles used the treasury to rebuild Athens after the Persians had looted and burned it.
Athens became the center of Greek as art architecture and philosophy flourished

The Challenge of Persia
The Greeks came into contact with the Persian Empire to their east. The Ionian Greek cities in Asia Minor revolted unsuccessfully against Persians in 499 BC. Darius the Persian ruler sought revenge
In 490 BC the heavily outnumbered Athenians defeated the Persians at the battle of Marathon only 26 Miles from Athens

Xerxes
After Darius died Xerxe became the Persian King
He vowed revenge which caused the Athenians to rebuild their navy - By 480 BC the Athenian fleet was about two hundred strong. Xerxes invaded with a massive army about 180,000 soldiers and thousands of warships and supply vessels.7K greeks held them off for two days until a Traitor showed the Persians a Mountain pass to Flank the Greeks. The Athenians abandoned their city but near the island of Salamis the greek navy was victorious - The greeks came back and defeated the Persians
Athens Plan of War
Athens planned to win by staying behind its walls and receiving their supplies from their colonies and navy
Spartans surrounded Athens and hoped the Athenian army would come out and fight
Pericles knew the Spartans would defeat Athens in a ground war - So they stayed behind their walls

The Plague
430 BC Plague broke out in Athens
33% of its people died
Pericles dies of Plague 429BC
The Athenians held on for 25 years
Athens finally was defeated in 405BC when its Navy was defeated
Walls were torn down the Athenian Empire was destroyed and the war ended

The decline of Greek City States
Peloponnesian war weakened the Greek city states
Ruined the cooperation between them
The next 66 years SPARTA - ATHENS - THEBES struggled for domination
These struggles caused the Greeks to ignore the growing power of Macedonia - An oversight that cost
the Greeks their freedom
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