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Filipinos During The Pre-Spanish Period

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Zion Glory Dondoyano

on 1 July 2015

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Transcript of Filipinos During The Pre-Spanish Period

Long before the arrival of the Spaniards, ancient Filipinos were living in scattered barangays and ruled by different chieftains. Although, they were living separately, they were similar in many ways: their religion, mode of dressing, houses, system of government and marriage practices and economic activities. In short, they were refined and civilized; they possessed a distinct culture that distinguish them from other race.
Filipinos During The Pre-Spanish Period

Communities before lived near bodies of water. Houses were lined along the coasts of seas, bays, rivers and lakes.
Early Shelter
Early Filipinos lived in caves.
Nipa Huts
Made of nipa palm leaves and bamboo.

Square shaped and above 1 meter above the ground.
Tree Houses
To keep safe from enemies and animals. Ladders were hoisted in at night.
Houses on Stilts
Houses along the coastal areas. There is a pathway leading to the house.
Means of Livelihood
I. Agriculture
Kaingin Method
Wet Method
Prepare the area for farming
by cutting and burning the
dead plants and grasses.
Planting in areas where dikes were built to collect water.
II. Hunting
Men used bows and arrows to haunt animals.
III. Boat Making
They made boats out of woods.
IV. Trading
Filipinos traded with other Filipinos. The standard exchange was gold.
Early Filipino Communities
Communities had 10 to 20 families
Commercial communities were in the coastal areas
Local people traded with people coming from other Asian countries
This activity attracted people from mountains and forests
From the word
balanghay, biniray, balangay,
which means "a water vehicle"
Refers to an ethnic group who migrated and rode together
Usually, the group was named after their Datu
Choosing a Leader
I. Age
The oldest in the group was the leader.
II. Inheritance
Based on blood relation to the Datu. (son and daughter of the Datu, next immediate relative)
III. Extend of Knowledge
Had enough knowledge of the customs and traditions of the tribe.
The Barangay Government
Made up of 5 to 10 barangays
Datu - head/extensive powers/implemented and made the laws
Judge between conflicts
The community would serve the Datu in times of war, travel, farming, fishing, and harvesting
Laws of the barangay- written and unwritten
Practices/Beliefs Brought About Family Ties
– wife does not eat until the husband returns from battle
– a practice of non-marrying

Courtship and Marriage
Man was required to give a dowry
– type of dowry consisted of a piece of land or gold
– gift from the groom’s parent
– another payment for raising the future bride during her infancy period

Religious Beliefs
Before Roman Catholism and Islam were introduced, natives worshipped many gods and goddesses.
– supreme being
– god of agriculture
– god of death
– god of fire
– god of rainbow
– god of war
– god of harvest
– god of hell
They also believed in the immortality of souls and life after death.
There were sacred animals, which they venerate like white monkey and crocodiles.
There were also sacred places, as well as sacred trees which nobody was allowed to cut down;
They also worshipped the sun and the moon.

Superstitious Beliefs
(tiny creatures like humans)
(tall and apelike creatures smoking cigarettes, usually found on trees)
(an old lady capable of harming others using a doll and a pin)
– half-man and half-horse creature
– a baby that sucks blood on human
They also believed in magical power of amulets and charms such as anting-anting, kulam and the use of gayuma or love potion.

Equally divided to all the children unless the father favored one child
Illegitimate child gets nothing
No children: brothers get the inheritance
Succession to the throne: eldest son -> 2nd eldest son -> eldest daughter

Male Clothing
– the upper part was a jacket with a short sleeves called “
” while the lower part was a strip of cloth wrapped around the waist and in between the legs called “
”. They also used a piece of cloth for headgear called “
Female Clothing
– they wore “
” or “
”, a jacket with sleeves. The lower part was called “
Natives wore ornaments made of gold and precious stones. Women including men wore armlet, bracelets, gold rings and earring. Putting tattoos in their body was practiced.
Males having many tattoos were admired because it signified bravery in war. They also inserted gold between their teeth as an ornament.

To transmit knowledge, it was acquired through observation, imitation and practice. There was no formal education during pre-Spanish period. Children were taught to read and write by their parents. It was fair to say that they were literate.
The purpose of education during their time was for survival. The fathers taught males about hunting, fishing, agriculture and other economic activities while mothers taught females about managing the household.

Language and Writing System
>>>There are 8 major languages:
>>>The ancient Filipino alphabet consists of three vowels and fourteen consonants.
>>>Natives wrote on many different materials: leaves, palm fronds,tree bark and fruit rinds, but most common material was bamboo.
Palm Fronds
Tree Bark
Fruit Rinds (peel)
Economic Life
Domestic trade of different barangays from different regions and islands were made possible using boats.
Foreign trade was carried on with countries like Borneo, China, Japan, Cambodia, Java and Thailand.
Other means of livelihood were shipbuilding, weaving, poultry raising, mining, weaving and lumbering.

4 Kinds of Group/Social Classes
>>>Datus or Leaders
o Showed highest respect
o Made important decisions
o Regarded as savior
or the Freemen (Noble People)
o Did not pay taxes
o Travelled with Datu
o Supervised the rowers of the boat
or the Ordinary People (The Masa)
o Allowed to live in other barangays
o Rowers of the Boat
o Protected by the Datu
or Ayuey or The Slaves
o Lowest status
o Captured
o Punished

2 Kinds of Slaves
>>>Aliping Namamahay
o Not full-pledged slaves
o Had their own families and houses
o Required to serve their masters only during planting and harvesting period
>>>Aliping Sagigilid
o Real slaves
o Homeless
o Forbidden to form their own families
o Required to stay in their master’s house
o They could be used as a payment for debt

Ancestors of Modern Filipinos
Who were the first people to live in the Philippines? Where did they come from? What happened to them?
These questions on the past cannot be fully answered even by the best scientists who studied about our early ancestors.
According to
Dr. Beyer
, the ancestors of the Filipinos came to the islands first via land bridges which occur during times when the sea level was low.

3 Main Sources About Our Distant Past
The story of God's creation in the Bible
The story of evolution made by human scientist
Legends and fairy tales made up by imaginative people
Waves of Migration
Another story of the first Filipinos describes three waves of migration to these islands
The Philippines was once connected to Mainland Asia by land bridges which gradually sank in the China sea, as a result of constant leveling work of ocean waves.
It was through these bridges that the first inhabitants came over to the Philippines.
According to the migration theory, our country was settled by three kinds of people: Negritos, Indonesians, Malays.

I. Negritos
First people to come in the Philippines
They are also called Aetas
Less than 5 feet tall, black skin, kinky hair
Wandered in the forest and lived by hunting, fishing and gathering wild plants and fruits
Used bow and arrow for hunting

II. Indonesians
First immigrants to come by the sea
Drove into the mountains and lived in lowlands
More advanced than Negritos
Lived in permanent homes and used fire to cook their food
Lived by hunting, fishing and small farming

III. Malays
Came after Indonesians about 2000 years ago
Also arrived in boats from Southeast Asia
Medium in height, brown-skinned with dark eyes, flat nose and straight black hair
More civilized than Indonesians
Lived in larger villages, had government
Lived by agriculture, fishing, mining and trading

Core Population
A theory which believes that the early Filipinos came from the settlers within the islands, not from the outside, and in fact our ancestors migrated outside to the other nearby islands to spread our own culture to other lands.
>>>Dawn Man
A cave-man type who was similar to Java man, Peking man and other Asian homo-sapiens of 25,000 years ago.

>>>Tabon Man
First man in the Philippines lived in caves at Tabon, Palawan about 25,000 years ago
They belong to the stone age culture because of using stone tools and weapons
Short with bushy eyebrows and a low forehead

>>>Callao Man
Earliest human remains known in the Philippines are the fossilized remains in Callao Cave, Cagayan

Beginnings of Filipino Civilization
The true Philippine Civilization has been dominated by colonial influences. Almost all the traditional art we are familiar with are derived from foreign influences. The admirable culture and traditions we once had have truly been forgotten and replaced by foreign ways of living.
>>>Introduction of Metal
The earliest use of metal in the Philippines was the use of copper for ornamentation, not tools. Even when copper and bronze tools became common, they were often used side by side with stone tools. Metals only became the dominant material for tools late in this era, leading to a new phase in cultural development.
>>>Introduction of Iron
Iron age finds in Philippines also point to the existence of trade between Tamil Nadu and the Philippine Islands during the 9th and 10th centuries B.C. When iron was introduced to the Philippines, it became the preferred material for tools and largely ended the use of stone tools.
>>>Jewelry, Metal Work and Mining
Mines dating back to at least 1,000 B.C. have been found in the Philippines. The Filipinos also made jewelry of carnelian, agate and other precious stones, and of course, they were known for their coveted pearl industry. The Filipinos made metal implements like the sumpak of carabao horn and silver, a sort of fire piston, and the kalikot, of ebony and silver, for pounding betel nuts into powder. Excellent gongs were made of various metals.
Metal vessels were made and some interesting copper vessels have been found in the Itogon-Bua area of Mountain province. Sacred drums were also sometimes cast in metal. For some reason, Filipinos rarely seemed to have made agricultural tools from metal. They had quite an array of hammers, chisels, mullers and the like but usually made of stone or wood. Possibly iron, copper and brass were too valuable for use as weapons, and ceremonial gongs, drums, vessels and the like.
The ancient Filipino engaged in pottery making from very ancient times. Many of the important pottery traditions that spread into the Oceania region had their counterparts in the Philippines including the well-known Lapita culture.
>>>Agriculture and Livestock
The Filipinos were great agriculturists. They practiced a form of duck culture around Pateros and Taguig in Rizal that resembled that of the Chinese. This included methods of artificial incubation of eggs, and the tradition was carried on until modern times. Indeed, this is quite an advanced science which requires intimate knowledge of every phase of a duck's life.
>>>Other Industries
Other Pre-Spanish Filipino industries included the manufacture of liquors and vinegars like tuba, basi, etc., the production of hides for export to Japan, export of edible bird's nests from Northern Palawan to China, the raising and trade of civet cats, the manufacture of gunpowder, the making of wax for export to China, and the making of cotton stockings for export.
The textile industry is one in which the Philippines has long acted as an exporter. The early Spanish noted that the Filipinos knew had to raise, spin and weave cotton and silk. Lace-making and embroidery were widely practiced often with superb results. Besides cotton, abaca fiber and banana leaf fiber was also used. The native silk was known as pina. The woven works of the Philippines, particularly from the Muslims and animists of the South are now receiving long overdue attention from the international community.
The Filipinos were said to be excellent wood carvers, and most of their sculpture was in wood. The carvings consisted mainly of small anitos for the household, or for mostly small religious structures known as simbahan. In some cases, fine carvings like the sarimanok were to be found. Unfortunately, wood carvings like wood architecture rarely survives the march of time. As many of the native arts suffered due to colonization, it is impossible to determine what level the lowlanders reached in these arts.
The houses of chiefs and other ruler's in the Philippines was said to be impressive. They are built upon trees and thick arigues, with many rooms and comforts. They are well constructed of timber and planks, and are strong and large. They are furnished and supplied with all that is necessary , and are much finer and more substantial than the others.
The stone walls, canals, dams and reservoirs of the Igorots can also be considered as type of architecture, or at least stone engineering. The amount of stones used by the Igorots in their hydraulic engineering works is estimated to far exceed in bulk those used in building the Pyramids or the Great Wall of China. Many of these walls and canals are thousands of years old and have withstood countless typhoons and the effects of Sun, wind and time.
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