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ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING

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Anel Viljoen

on 27 October 2014

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Transcript of ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING

INTRODUCTION
KEY CONCEPTS
CONCLUSION
ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Seminar 2
ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Anel Viljoen
Chloe van Niekerk
Adult education is also often referred to as life long learning as it is a developing multi-facet field of study

Consciously or subconsciously we are all continuously learning through our lives. We are also increasingly more likely to engage ourselves in a more formalised manner of learning such as education or training
ADULT
LITERACY
LEARNING
ADULT LEARNING
EDUCATION VS TRAINING
FURTHER EDUCATION AND TRAINING
INFORMAL EDUCATION
FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL EDUCATION
RATIONALE FOR ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING
THEORIES WITH REGARD TO ADULT EDUCATION AND TRAINING
PRINCIPLES OF ADULT LEARNING
CHARACTERISTICS OF ALDUT LEARNERS
TEACHING STYLES FOR ADULT LEARNERS
LEARNING STYLES FOR ADULT LEARNERS
PROBLEMS OF ADULT LEARNERS
MOTIVATION FOR ADULTS TO LEARN
MYTHS WITH REGARD TO ADULT LEARNERS
REFERENCES
The term adult can be seen as a very controversial subject
It can refer to a time in a persons life cycle; child-youth-adult
It can also refer to a social subset: Clear distinction between child and adult
The simplest and most common way to measure adulthood it by age - However no certain age can determine adulthood
Adulthood is both self-recognising and recognised by others
everyone determines adulthood differently according to certain milestones: >18, >21, wage earner, married, parent etc.
Learning is a continuous every day activity, it is the process by which we face, use and cope with our previous experience
Learning can both be seen as a outcome or a process
Learning usually consist of a learner, a stimulus situation, their memory and a response towards the specific situation
Learning can also be defined whereby knowledge is creating through the transformation of experience
Literacy can very simply be defined as the ability to read and write
It does however consist of a complex set of abilities that varies according the the person or the need of the abilities
This can also be referred to as the presence or possessions of education
Furthermore the ability to successfully attain and process information
Adult learning = How adults learn
Adult learning is viewed as an informed decision to gain knowledge and skills, satisfy learner needs and process of critical self-reflection that can lead to transformation
It is difficult to define adult learning but it can be seen as understanding and promoting transformative learning
System of institutions which provide learning opportunities
All forms of learning, inside or outside an institution
A process of assisted or guided learning
Planned and interactive learning opportunity
Teaching opportunities, where the aim is the 'right' way to do something
Mostly based on skills
Choice is limited and not encouraged
The 'right' way of thinking, feeling and behaving
Education
Training
Increasing Breadth and depth
Increasing specifications
They all have a 'self image' as adult
They are all engaged in a continuing process of growth
They all bring a package of experience and values
They usually come to education with their own intentions
They bring certain expectations about education itself
They all have competing interests/ multi-level responsibilities
They all posses a set pattern of learning
Self-directed
Practical and results oriented
Less open-minded
Slower learner, yet more integrative knowledge
Use personal experience as a resource
Motivation
High expectations
Autonomous
Adults are autonomous and self directed
Adults bring knowledge and experience to each learning activity
Adults are goal, relevancy and problem oriented
Adults are practical
Adults are motivated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors
Adults will commit to learning something when the goals and objectives are considered realistic and important to the learner
Learning situations should be practical and problem-centered
Learning situations should promote their positive self-esteem
New ideas should be integrated with existing knowledge
Respect to the adult learner
Choice and self direction should be encouraged
The whole system of lifelong learning has to train people for assuming of the most important life roles in the changing world of today, and to contribute to the development of the person.
This will ultimately improve the quality of life which is the ultimate purpose of social development and education.
Adult Basic Education is identified as a critical priority in South Africa and plays a vital role in equipping adult learners with the necessary knowledge, skills and values in order to be functional in society and as a person by contributing to the workforce, community and economy.
It also enables learners to acquire the necessary competencies in order to access further education and training, career development and employment opportunities.

Further education and training is directed at more specific occupational life skills, rather than academic degrees.
Facilities that are non-campus environments, such as the industry, military, trade unions etc.
Further education institutions may offer courses found elsewhere in schools and universities.

Formal education
is provided by a formal institution such as a university, technikon, school or college where a degree, certificate or diploma can be obtained after completion of the course.
Only used by the minority of the adult population.

Non formal education
is education activities planned for adults which take place outside the formal system of schools and tertiary education institutions and which does not receive formal certification.
Non formal education is obtained in a flexible, quick and cost-effective way usually within the working environment



Informal education is unorganized, unsystematic and even unintentional at times- it accounts for a person’s total lifetime learning.

May or may not be institutional

Learning take place incidental to another activity which is normally unforeseen or unplanned.

Social involvement, childrearing, care of elderly people

• Learning must be applicable to their lives
• Education must meet their specific needs
• Adults are practical, problem-solving-oriented learners.
• Adults have previous attained experience that serve as resources as they learn.
• Create a postive learning environment

Grasha’s (1996) Five Teaching Styles:

Expert
Guide through knowledge, expertise and transmitting information.

Formal Authority
Rules, standards and practise. Provide learners with a rigid learning structure

Personal Model
Personal example or demonstration.

Facilitator
Develop criteria and make informed decisions.

Delegator
In this teaching style adults self-directedness is addressed.

Each individual has a distinct learning ability or style in which they process and retain information.
Fleming Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic (VAK) learning mode (2001).

Visual learning style
:
• Learn through means of pictorial elements
• Create mental images to retain information

Auditory learning style:
• Learn through listening
• Learn best through verbal lectures

Kinesthetic learners
tend to:
• Learn through physical activities
• Retain and process information through means of interacting with the environment their surrounded with

Adults are faced with various problems which may interfere with their learning abilities:

Personal problems
Uncomfortable environment.
Insecurities
Fears
Doubts about coping strategies
Different learning styles.


Personal development purposes
For stimulation or interest
To resovle personal problems
Professional advancement
Meet skill requirements in working position
Additional skills
Benefit the community
To facilitate life changes
To maintain social relationships

Education can be described as self- actualization or self-fulfillment needs.
Motivation can either be intrinsic or extrinsic.

Intrinsic motivators
are motivators such as challenge, inner satisfaction or feeling of accomplishment.

Extrinsic motivators
are motivators such as the desire for recognition, praise or financial reward.

You can’t learn while you work.
Brief training sessions are usually enough.
Learners always practically apply information gained from training sessions.
The focus should be on the instructor.
A variety in learning is distracting.
There is only one best way to teach or learn.
All adults are motivated.
Only listening is required to remember information.
The main focus during teaching is the way the information is presented and teach.
ADULT BASIC EDUCATION AND TRAINING (ABET)

Adult basic education and training is all learning and training programmes available for adults registered on the level 1 national qualifications framework contemplated in the National Qualifications Framework Act, 2008 (Act No. 67 of 2008);

ABET is the foundation of learning and development, to attain knowledge, skills and attitudes required for social, economic and political participation and transformation applicable to a range of contexts.

ABET’s ideal is to provides access to nationally recognized certificates.

ABET- Courses must provide a general basic education. Must link up with other education and training opportunities, and job creation projects. Classes must be open to a wider community.

Anon. 2014. Adult basic education and training – ABET Supporting adult learning in South Africa. http://www.abet.co.za/. Date of access: 31 July 2014
Anon. 2013. Adult learning myths and practices. https://sites.google.com/site/adultlearningmythsandpractices/. Date of access 1 Aug 2014.
Anon. 2014. Adult basic education and training – ABET Supporting adult learning in South Africa. http://www.abet.co.za/. Date of access: 31 July 2014
Anon. 2008. Solutions to Obstacles in Teaching Adult Learners http://voices.yahoo.com/solutions-obstacles-teaching-adult-learners-1318493.html. Date of access: 1 Aug 2014.
Anon. 2013. Adult learning myths and practices. https://sites.google.com/site/adultlearningmythsandpractices/. Date of access 1 Aug 2014.
Hurt, J. 2010. Busted: ten conference adult learning myths. Associations, event & meeting planning. http://jeffhurtblog.com/2010/01/20/busted-ten-conference-adult-learning-myths/. Date of access: 31 July 2014
Conlan, J., Grabowski, S. & Smith, K. 2012. Adult learning. http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Adult_Learning. Date of access: 30 Jul 2014
Elearningindustry. 2013. The adult learning theory- andragogy – of Malcolm Knowels. http://www.slideshare.net/elearningindustry/the-adult-learning-theory-andragogy-of-malcolm-knowles. Date of access: 3 Aug 2014.
Grill, J. 2002. Adult learning. http://www.fsu.edu/~adult-ed/jenny/learning.html. Date of access: 30 Jul 2014.
Lieb, S. & Goodlad, J. 2005. Principles of adult learning, .
Pappas, C. 2013. 8 Important characteristics of adult learners. http://elearningindustry.com/8-important-characteristics-of-adult-learners. Date of access: 30 Jul 2014
QOTFC The clinicaleducator’s resource kit. 2007. http://www.qotfc.edu.au/resource/index.html?page=65378. Date of access: 30 Jul 2014.
Rogers, A. 2002. Teaching adults. 3rd ed. USA: Philadelphia. Open University Press.
Sweeny, B. 2008. Principles of adult learning. Retrieved on october, 112010.
Tight, M. 1993. Key concepts in adult education and training. London. Routledge.
Tight, M. 2002. Key concepts in adult education and training. Psychology Press.
Walkin, L. 1990. Teaching and learning in further and adult education. England: Leckhampton. Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd.
Wynne, R. 2014?. Motivating Factors in Adult Learning. http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/anxieties.htm. Date of access: 1 Aug 2014.

-Self-concept
-Adult learner experience
-Readiness to learn
-Orientation to learning
-Motivation to learn
1. Malcolm Knowels- Andragogy and Pedagogy:
2. Jack Mezirow – Trasformational learning:

- Musical – Rhythmic and harmonic
- Visual – spatial
- Verbal – linguistic
- Logical – Mathematical
- Bodily – Kinestethic
- Interpersonal
- Intrapersonal
- Naturalistic

4. Howard Gardner – Multiple intelligences theory:
3. Child and Heavens- Conditions/Environment:

1.Concrete experience
2.Observation and reflection
3.Forming abstract concepts
4.Testing in new situations
5. Kolb and Fry- Experiential learning
6. Jarvis’s Learning Process and Adult Learning Theory
Situational circumstances constitute an environment that promotes or discourages learning.
Those circumstances may be created by organizational structure, positive or negative environmental situations, or time constraints.
"The learning capabilities of organizational members are, at least in part, socially constructed by national, occupational, or other institutions"
It can be concluded that adult education and training is influenced through various aspects and that this type of education and training definitely differ than that of scholarly education. Aspects influencing adult education and training are the adult learners' characteristics, motivation, problems and learning styles. These influences provide an outline on how to approach adult education and training by designing teaching styles that will specifically meet the adult learners’ needs and guide them in reaching their goals.
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