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Food

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by

MR. S.

on 5 May 2016

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Transcript of Food

All living things need food to stay alive. Food provides your body with materials to grow and to repair tissues. It also provides energy for everything you do. When food is used for energy, the amount of energy released is measured in
calories
.
Everyone needs a certain number of calories to meet their daily energy needs.
Why Do We Need Food?
Food and Energy
One Calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. The unit
Calorie
, with a capital
C
, is used to measure the energy in foods. One Calorie equals 1,000 calories.
Calorie
People need six types of
nutrients
: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.


(I will be explaining carbohydrates and fats.)
What Nutrients Do You Need?
Nutrients are the substances in food that provide the raw materials and energy the body needs to carry out all its essential processes.
Nutrients
The nutrients known as
carbohydrates
are a major source of energy and made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Carbohydrates also provide raw materials to make cell parts. About 45-65 percent of your daily Calories should come from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates can be divided into
simple carbohydrates
and
complex carbohydrates
.
Carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates are called sugars. Sugars can give a quick burst of energy. Foods contain many kinds of sugars. The body converts the different sugars in foods into
glucose
.
Simple Carbohydrates
Glucose is the major source of energy for your body's cells.
Glucose
Complex carbohydrates are made up of many linked sugar molecules. For example, Starch is a complex carbohydrate. Your body breaks down starches into sugar molecules so their energy can be released. Starches provide a long-term energy source. Fiber is another complex carbohydrate in plants. Fiber is not a nutrients because your body cannot digest it. Even so, you still need fiber because it helps keep your digestive sysyem functioning properly.
Complex Carbohydrates
Abigail Atkins (pp.66-70)
Fats
Like carbohydrates, fats are energy-containing nutrients composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. However, one gram of fat provides nine Calories of energy, while one gram of carbohydrates provides only four Calories. Fats form part of the cell membrane. In addition, fatty tissue protects your organs and insulates your body.
Kinds of Fats
There are three kinds of fats in foods- saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and trans fat. Saturated fats, such as the fats in meat, are usually solid and at room temperature. Unsaturated fats, such as cooking oils, are usually liquids and at room temperature. Trans fats are made by adding hydrogen to vegetable oils. Unsaturated fats are helpful in proper amounts, but saturated and trans fats are not. Therefore, no more than 30 percent of your daily Calories should come from fats.
Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a waxy fat like substance found in products from animals. Like fats, cholesterol is an important part of your body's cells. Because your liver makes all the cholesterol you need, you do not need to eat foods that contain it. A diet high in fat and cholesterol can lead to a buildup of fatty material in the blood vessels and may cause heart disease.
My Planet Diary
You know that you have to eat food everyday. People study food for a living. They are called Food Scientists. Like other scientists, they spend a lot of time in the lab. They use what the know about biology and chemistry to test food for nutrition, taste, and shelf life, which is how long the food will last before it spoils.
Thanks For Watching!!!
Full transcript