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Transcript of Mexican War
The Mexican-American War lasted from
Divisions in Mexico
Opposition to the war
Southern Democrats were very much for the war,because they wanted to expand the slave owning territory,as the weak and broken government would be easily conquered. This would in turn help the Southern cause by preventing being outnumbered by the fast growing North.
Lincoln's Spot Resolutions
Bear Flag Republic-Seizing of California
The Cause of the Mexican - American War
designed to destroy slavery within land acquired by Mexican War
proposed by Northern Democrat David Wilmot, who along with the Northerners feared more slave territory that restricted Northern free labor
an amendment to a bill by Pres. K Polk that asked for $2 million in help of negotiating a treaty
Wilmot's proviso was passed by the House many times, but was never passed by Senate, due to the equal division between southern and northern states in the Senate that would not enable a majority vote
The Capture of Mexico City
President's Polk's War Plan
General Zachary Taylor
The Mexican War
President James K. Polk's plan to win the war composed of three parts
1. Drive Mexican forces out of Texas and secure the border
2. Seize New Mexico and California
3. Gain control of Mexico City, Mexico's capital
John C. Fremont - "The Great Pathfinder"
Had been leading a group of 55 men to find the source of the Arkansas river and abruptly gave it to another explorer
Arrived in Monterey, California with 60 men
Suspicious mexican general led him away
Fremont returned on June 15, 1846
California was declaring its independence
"The Bear Flag Revolt" was largely bloodless
Was ordered by President Polk to secure texas
established a base near the mouth of the Rio Grande River
Led an army of 3,000 men to capture Mexico City in September 1846
The battle of Buena Vista also known as the Battle of Angostura was fought on February 22 and 23, 1847. It took place in Puerto de la Angostura, Coahuila. This as one of the largest battles in the Mexican-American War. It was fought between Sargent Zachary Taylor's army and Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna's Army. Both Taylor and Santa Anna were traveling to Agua Nueva where they planned to take control of that agricultural area. Santa Anna commenced the war when he attacked Taylor's army. The battle was over when Santa Anna's council of war advised retreat. This victory for Taylor resulted as his greatest victory in the war.
Battle of Buena Vista
Battle of Palo Alto
The battle of Palo alto occurred on May 8, 1846 near Brownsville, Texas. The battle was fought between " Army of the North " lead by Mariano Arista and " The Army of Occupation " commanded by Zackary Taylor. This battle was the first major battle of the war. The battle followed the Thornton Affair, it commenced when the generals heard a cannon fired. The battle began and was finished when they decided to camp for the night.
In the morning Taylor woke up
and saw that The Mexican army
was walking South, leaving. He
sent men to follow them which
later resulted in the Battle of
Resaca de la Palma.
Battle of La Paz:
The battle of La Paz occurred on November 16 and 17, 1847. It was fought at La Paz in Baja California Sur. The battle was fought between the United States Army lead by Henry S. Burton and the Mexican Army commanded by Manuel Pineda Munoz. Captain Manuel Pineda began to assemble a large army of 200 men consisting of farmers and ranchers. Pineda's mission was to defend the the Gulf of California Region in Mexico from the United States military who were constantly known for invading. The Americans mission was to take over and occupy various ports in the South. Captain Manuel Pineda planned out his attack carefully and attacked the American garrison in La Paz. The battle commenced when Pineda ordered his brigade of 200 men to attack the Americans. The Mexican army fired at the Americans non-stop from 2 am until 9am when they then advanced. Pineda's army was later forced to retreat when Burton ordered a spherical shot and canister shot to be fired, 6 men died and the houses of the north side of the arroyo were destroyed. Pineda's men withdrew but continued to hover over the American garrison which later lead to Siege of La Paz.
It had been argued in the U.S. that the President should be given the ability to declare war
The ability was not granted to the president
Abraham Lincoln-a freshman member of the House- had analyzed and informed the House of Polk's evidence to declare war on Mexico
Evidence was the particular spot's where the blood of U.S. citizens had been spilled
House never acted on Lincoln's spot resolutions because of the unpersuasive nature of Polk's ground on which to begin the war
Spanish empire had collapsed after Napoleon's invasion in 1808
Mexico began to rebel against Spain
When they finally were able to gain their freedom, they had a lack of agreement between their social, economical, and political structures
Laws had been changed to give the new nation new freedoms, but to keep the social classes intact and it was a problem for this reason:
Ideas to change the social order were rejected
Spaniards were now seen as a threat
Whereas, the President of the United States, in his message of May 11, 1846, has declared that “the Mexican Government not only refused to receive him, [the envoy of the United States,] or listen to his propositions, but, after a long-continued series of menaces, have, at last invaded our territory and shed the blood of our fellow citizens on our own soil.”
And again, in his message of December 8, 1846, that “we had ample cause of war against Mexico long before the breaking out of hostilities; but even we forbore to take redress into our own hands until Mexico herself became the aggressor, by invading our soil in hostile array and shedding the blood of our citizens.”
Excerpts from Lincoln's Spot Resolutions
The tension between the United States and Mexico began when Texas was formally being accepted into the union. Following this action, the tension further worsened in 1946 over border disputes including California and New Mexico. The war officially was declared when President Polk ordered war against Mexico.
" I do not think there was ever a more wicked war than that waged by the United States on Mexico... I am always ashamed of my country when I think of that invasion " - Ulysses S. Grant, 18th president of the United States
Invaded by the U.S forces under General Winfield Scott
Invaded Vera Cruz without any loss, largest amphibious landing in U.S history
Reached the Capital and raised an American flag over the Hall of Montezuma
Concluded devastation caused by the amphibious landing
The effect that had the most lasting impact was psychological. Having been humiliated by having their capitol occupied with american troops made many Mexicans lose their national pride. This also built a resentment toward "Yankees."
The War left many orphans, widows and cripples.
There was major instability in the government and economy leading to another Mexican Civil War.
Effects in the
5,800 Soldiers killed in battle.11,000 died from disease
Economy spiked up and down from the 75 million spent and then the silver and gold deposits in California.
Upset balance between free and slave states
Factor leading to Civil War