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Cells and their Structure

Plants vs Animals

Shirsendu Podder

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Cells and their Structure

Typical Organelles Nucleus Microscopy Protein Transport Organelles Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum S.P. Animal and Plant Cells with their Organelles Graphic An endoplasmic reticulum membrane covered in ribosomes
Function: transports the proteins created by the ribosomes through exocytosis to the cell membrane
It releases vesicles with the protein in them, or a secretion Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum An endoplasmic reticulum membrane without ribosomes
Transports fatty molecules like steroids and lipids instead of proteins Golgi Body A stack of flattened cisternae pinched from the RER lined with SER
Vesicles containing secretions are pinched off of the Golgi body to be fused with the membrane to release the secretion Lysosome A dark spherical body containing a powerful mix of digestive enzymes
Function: to break down either food molecules or an obsolete organelle brought to it in a vacuole Made up of a nucleolus surrounded by a double nuclear membrane with pores through which chemicals can move through
The nucleolus is surrounded in two main substances, nucleic acids and proteins. DNA and RNA are the nucleic acids
The largest organelle Mitochondria The power factories of the cell. ATP is released through respiration with food
Cells needing little energy, will have few mitochondria, and vice versa cells needing a lot of energy will have a lot of mitochondria
They contain their own genetic material so they can be easily replicated during mitosis by the nucleus
They have an outer and inner membrane. The inner membrane is folded similar to villi to form cirstae currounded by a fluid matrix Centrioles Found in a pair near the nucleus in each cell
It is a circular arrangement of 9 tubules
Centrioles take place in cell division
They pull apart to form microtubules which are involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis Cytoskeleton It is what makes up the cytoplasm. It gives the cell structure holding the organelles in place
Made up of single/bundles of protein tubes arranged in a web-like structure called microtubules and microfilaments - protein fibres
Cytoskeleton is closely linked with the movement of the cell and transport within a cell Vacuoles Membrane Not a permanent feature within the cell
Created when they are needed by the RER/SER/Golgi body to transport secretions (proteins/steroids) in and out of the cell Membranes are important in controlling movement of substances moving in and out of the cell
Secondary membranes are present within other organelles like the mitochondria Main Plant Cell Additions Choroplast Cell Wall Permanent Vacuole This is what enables a plant to make their own food
Only green parts of the plant contain any chloroplasts, seeds, flowers and roots don't have them In animal cells they are much smaller and are used on a temporary basis, created and destroyed when needed, but for a plant cell, they are very important for structure and basically keeping the cell turgid
The permanent vacuole has a membrane around it called the tonoplast and contains cell sap which is a mixture of substances in water.
The vacuole is also used for storage, can be used to store proteins in the cells of seeds and fruits. Waste products and other chemicals are also stored there Made of cellulose (a chain of beta-glucose)
It holds the cell together in a specific shape that gives the plant their strength and support Thanks for listening
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