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Transcript of Iran
There have been two main general coalitions of parties, the Conservatives and the Reformists.
However it should be noted that since 2009, only Conservatives have been allowed to participate in elections and many Reformist parties have been shut down. Political Parties Iran Pre/Post WWII Major Political Parties Political participation is permitted in Iran, however, it is restricted by the government, and therefore is not genuine.
Elections in Iran are not free or fair, but suited to fit what the Guardians, Assembly, and ultimately the Leader wants.
The pattern of political participation over the last half a century in Iran has fluctuated tremendously.
Gaining freedom from the Shah, most were uninoformed when elections took place
Citizens become more involved, participate more, when strong feelings about the candidates/administration are involved.
2009 Supported and represented by organizations that provide for the constituents
Measures taken to advance socioeconomic status of veterans and “martyrs”
have not always addressed their demands
Complaints that respect for the era of war veterans has faded
Point of view given voice by conservative newspapers and film makers who produce war films Background: War Veterans, Families of Martyrs, and Disabled of Iran-Iraq War IRGC = 120,000 men
Basij = 90,000 men
Established to mobilize support for regime
Since 2003, taken roles in politics
Local council elections
High ranking figures ran for local offices, parliament, and presidency
NO CLEAR SEPARATION BETWEEN GROUP AND GOVERNMENT Background: IRGC and Basij IRGC and Basij = Democratic-corporatist
Bazaari Merchants = Pluralist
War Vets., “Martyrs,” and Iran-Iraq Disabled = ?
Enjoy a Welfare state type of gov. Interest Group Categorizations Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) and Basij
War veterans, families of martyrs, and disabled from Iraq-Iran War
Non-associational Major Iranian Interest Groups Consists of retailers, brokers, wholesalers, and international traders
Differ in socioeconomic status, political persuasion, and positions in international and national economies
Solidarity comes in their defined bazaar space, it ensures socially embedded relations
Close with ulema greater political influence Background: Bazaari Merchants Citizens are allowed to freely formulate their own political preferences under the Iranian Constitution. The government controls the overall outcome of the "free" elections, despite what the public desires. Passively accept government decisions. Examples that deter citizens from speaking freely: Roozbeh Mirebrahimi - spoke out through blogging
2009 protest - 85 executions Pre WWII:
Pro-Western Conservative Establishment : consisted of the Shah and Landlords, and was supported by most of the ulema
Tudeh Party : Pro-Soviet Communist
Neutralist National Front : wanted to establish full rule of law within the country & consolidate its standing among nations
Communist Tudeh Party
These were overshadowed by the
Marxist-Leninist Fada’iyan-e Khalq
Liberation Movement of Iran (LMI) – this is an offshoot of the National Front
Post 1981, all parties were disbanded except the LMI, which continues low level activity presently Post 1981 Major Political Parties Reformists : Before their ban, used to operate under the 2nd of Khordad Movement coalition umbrella.
The prominent reformists used to be:
The Islamic Iran Participation Front (banned June 2010)
The National Trust Party (banned in 2009)
The Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution Organization (banned in June 2010)
Conservatives : Many of the conservative groups operate under the umbrella “Conservative Alliance”. Which is the Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran.
Often refer to themselves as "principalists" and campaigned for stricter social reform.
The prominent parties within the alliance are:
The Islamic Society of Engineers
The Combatant Clergy Association
The Islamic Coalition Party The pattern of the political party system is to all operate under one “umbrella” organization with the parties as sub-groups more rather than actual parties. So in a sense THAT pattern hasn’t changed.
What HAS changed though is the fact that almost all of the Reformist coalitions and parties have been banned with leaders being jailed.
Reasons for this have been called “lacking the required licenses” However I think that the true reasons are obviously merely to keep the Conservative coalition in charge and in power. (The party of the current President). Pattens and Current Changes
Ali, Najah Mohammad. "Iran Bans Three Reformist Parties from Participating in Upcoming Polls." Iran Bans Three Reformist Parties from Participating in Upcoming Polls. Trans. Mustapha Ajbaili. Al Arabiya News, 04 Nov. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/11/04/175366.html>.
Khani, Mohammad Hassan. "Political Parties in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Short Review." Political Parties in the Islamic Republic of Iran: A Short Review. Iran Review, 17 July 2012. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.iranreview.org/content/Iran_Spectrum/Political-Parties-in-the-Islamic-Republic-of-Iran-A-Short-Review.htm>.
Mokhtarzada, Homeyra . "A Primer on Iran’s Presidential Election System ." The Electoral Knowledge Network . ACE. Web. 27 Oct 2012. <http://aceproject.org/today/feature-articles/a-primer-on-iran2019s-presidential-election-system>.
. Election Guide . IFES. Web. 27 Oct 2012. <http://electionguide.org/election.php?ID=1394>.
"Iran." National Democratic Institute. National Democratic Institute, n.d. Web. 25 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ndi.org/iran>.
Kar, Mehrangiz. "Political Participation in Iran." A Forum on Human Rights and Democracy in Iran. Gozaar Beta, 07 Feb. 2007. Web. 24 Oct. 2012. <http://www.gozaar.org/english/articles-en/Political-Participation-in-Iran.html>.
Powell, G. Bingham, Jr., Russell J. Dalton, and Kaare Strom. Comparative Politics Today: A World View. Tenth ed. Boston: Longman, 2012. Print. Works Cited Hamsa Fayed
Eryn Krivansky The Iranian President is determined through an absolute majority (WTA - 50%+1 votes)
If no absolute majority, the law calls for a -
runoff election between the top two vote getters. The runoff election is mandated to take place within one week of the first round of elections.
Once a winner is determined, the Guardian Council approves the election process and the Supreme Leader signs off on the Letter of Presidency. The new president takes the oath of office before the Iranian Majles (Parliament). Determining the Winner Iran’s president serves a 4-year term.
citizen of Iran,
reputable and qualified, thoughtful and possess management abilities,
they believe in Islam and the principles of the Islamic Republic,
persons with a record of religious and political affiliation.
Additional requirements not specified (ie age, education)
Hundreds/thousands, of people register to be a candidate in the presidential elections. However, registration does not guarantee the ability to run for the office. Becoming a candidate In Iran, there is no voter registration or roll.
Iranians can vote anywhere as long as they present their national identification book, or Shenasnameh.
The system is set up to prevent fraud
Iran has a two-part ballot – the ballot itself and a stub portion.
When a voter enters the polling station,
there is a check of their shenasnameh for
1. authenticity (the voting age in Iran is 16)
2. voter has not already voted in the election.
For every election - unique ink stamp which is stamped into a voter’s shenasnameh Voting in Iran Iran has had an election of some type almost every year since the 1979 Islamic Revolution.
The administration of these elections is decentralized and a grass-roots operation.
Iran’s various elections are governed by:
specific electoral laws
Electoral Process –
Guardian Council is mandated with a broad supervisory role.
Ministry of Interior (MoI)
The MoI is responsible for administration of elections Election Process Registered Candidates w/ Moi ->the Guardian Council.
The Guardian Council then vets (checks) the list according to the requirements laid out in the law
many people disqualified for lacking the requisite qualifications.
While the Guardian Council is vetting the candidate list, candidates can submit information or testimonials that confirm their eligibility and qualifications.
Guardian Council completes vetting, a final list of is sent to the MoI, which publishes the list. Becoming a Candidate Cont. District magnitudes range from one to six.
Five of 290 seats are reserved to recognized religious minorities.
The electoral system is based on the multiple non-transferable vote
(i.e. voters have as many votes to cast as there are seats to fill in the respective constituency).
The victory threshold for a candidate is 25 percent, however. If no candidate exceeds 25 percent of votes in the first round, a second-round election is held.
Two-way ties are broken by lot. There are no clear provisions for breaking ties among three or more candidates. Islamic Consultative Assembly The Leader of the Islamic Revolution is appointed.
The President is elected by absolute majority vote through a two-round system to serve a 4-year term.
In the Islamic Consultative Assembly
290 members are elected by qualified plurality vote to serve 4-year terms. Description of electoral system: 2009 President Cont. 2012 Islamic Consultative Assembly Cont. 2008 2000 Islamic Consultative Assembly Iran is made up of 669 districts = 330 counties = 30 provinces of the country
Each district is headed by a District Administrator
each county is headed by a Governor.
prior to the election, Election Executive Committees are formed at each level.
By law, these Committees are constituted of a
Governor/District Administrator (who chairs the Committee),
the county/district prosecutor,
the head of the civil registration office
eight members of the public. Election Administration 2005 2001 President The Guardian Council usually tends to support the Conservative thought process and this is seen in the 2009 Presidential elections and the ensuing violence due to the anticipated fraud.
The Guardian Council has also vetoed many of the reformist bills passed by the parliament and the Reformist Presidents while in power like more right for Women and Economic Reforms.
This shows the BIAS OF THE GUARDIAN COUNCIL for the conservative thought process and their policies. Law making and the Guardian Council The Guardian council is the most powerful body in Iran.
It is a 12 member body with 6 of them appointed by the Parliament and the other 6 members appointed by the Supreme Leader.
It is like an Iranian Constitutional court with powers to veto the bills approved by the Parliament to annulling election results.
This was made clear in the post 2009 elections when there was violence over the presumed fraud in the voting process and the runner up Prime Minister Mousavi had asked for its intervention but the Guardian council looked the other way while this happened.
There is also a bias for the conservative candidates in the Guardian Council with 6 of its members being approved by the Supreme Leader who is from the same thought process. Guardian Council Duverger’s law is applicable in the Iranian Theocracy since there are two major ideologies and parties with those ideologies which have been winning the elections
The Iranian revolution had leftist parties and religious parties and rightist parties as well, but today the two dominating parties are the religious party in the form of the conservatives and the center-right reformists.
In the elections since 2005 there have been parties forming based on ideologies and better organized opposition parties are fighting together under a single banner.
In the 2009 Presidential elections the two party system prevailing in Iran was made amply clear by the winning candidate President Ahmadinejad and the runner up Prime Minister Mousavi together garnering more then 96% of the votes. Duverger’s Law in Iran The Iranian Parliament also followed a system of Winner Take All.
The party which identifies itself with the President of the times ideology usually wins the majority in the parliament
The parliamentary majority has alternated between the reformists and the conservatives with the current parliament being run by the conservatives.
The Parliament forms new laws and approves new bills of the government. The only institute which can undermine the Parliament is the Guardian Council which is more like an Iranian Constitutional Court. Iranian Political System