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ESL 802 lesson 4: Conclusion

ESL 802
by

Prof. H. Lecakes-Jones

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of ESL 802 lesson 4: Conclusion

CONCLUSION
The final sentence of the paragraph.

1. The conclusion is an ECHO of the topic sentence.
2. Restate (say again) the 3 supports
3. End with a flourish! ( a ta-dah)
Conclude=end
Copy your first sentence information in the concluding sentence BUT..

Use synonyms. A thesaurus* is necessary!

synonyms=similar words
(car=auto=automobile=transportation...)
ECHO/summary
*A thesaurus is a type of dictionary that has synonyms instead of definitions in it!
"Ta-tah" or "clincher"
Make a prediction
Recommend a solution
Use a metaphor
Anecdote
Create a vivid image
Issue a "call to action"
Prediction/
Finding a prince is easy; be kind! And Find your prince now!
Solution
Metaphor
Anecdote
Vivid image
TS-Cinderella leads a miserable life and is eventually rewarded. CD-For example, she does all the cooking,

cleaning, and sewing. CM-This shows that she feels taken advantage of by her

selfish stepmother and stepsisters. CM-This is important because even though

she has a horrible life, she remains kind. She is eventually rewarded by her fairy godmother. CS-As a result, she becomes a princess and is rewarded for her kindness. Patience is a virture!
So continue to be kind and your fairy godmother will wipe away all your problems!
Cinderella was held hostage by negative people yet she never gave up.
In conclusion,
Cinderella is like my grandmother, she was treated poorly by her stepmother yet married her prince, my grandfather.
ON-LINE ACTIVITIES
1. http://www.ccc.commnet.edu/sensen/part3/sixteen/techniques_conclusions.html
2.
http://www.time4writing.com/writing-paragraphs/concluding-sentence/
(Go to # 4 elementary then middle then high!)

TOPIC SENTENCE:
1. There are many different ways of using eggs in cooking.
SUPPORTING SENTENCES:
2. They can be boiled lightly and eaten with toast.
3. Hard boiled eggs are good for picnics, sandwiches or use in salads.
4. Fried, poached and scrambled eggs are commonly eaten at breakfast,
while an omelette provides a light and nourishing meal at any time.
5. For an exotic touch, eggs can be curried or used in sauces such as
mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.
6. To give lightness and substance, eggs are usually added to cakes and
pastries.
CONCLUDING SENTENCE
7. There are few foods that are as nourishing and versatile as eggs.
-The Learning Centre
Examples:
The University of Sidney Australia says," The conclusion draws together the information you have presented to elaborate your controlling idea by:
summarizing the points you have made.
repeating words or phrases (or synonyms for them) from the topic sentence.
using linking words that indicate that conclusions are being drawn, for example, therefore, thus, resulting.
This paragraph is missing the concluding sentence. Read the paragraph and choose the best conclusion.

Halloween

Halloween is a traditional American holiday. Americans celebrate it every year on October 31. Children dress in Halloween costumes and go trick-or-treating. Adults have parties and decorate their homes. The stores sell a lot of candy and things that are black and orange. People eat donuts and drink apple cider. They also carve pumpkins to make jack-o-lanterns. _______________________________________________

A. Children love to eat candy on Halloween.

B. You can dress as a mummy, a witch, or a princess on Halloween.

C. These are the traditions of Halloween in America.
3.
http://college.cengage.com/devenglish/wong/paragraph_essentials/1e/students/exercises/ch2_1.html
+
+
HOW to do it?
Name_________________
Date__________________
ESL 802
Instructor Lecakes-Jones

Read the paragraphs. Create five NEW concluding sentences for each paragraph. You only need to have one concluding sentence in a paragraph so put a star next to your favorite! Have one of each of the following: 1.vivid image 2.anecdote 3.metaphor 4.solution 5.prediction

a. New rules were imposed for saving water. The summer had been extremely hot and dry. Many brushfires had broken out. People were told not to water their lawns or wash their cars. People responded by using less water and being careful about how they used water. Everyone realized the new rules were in the best interest of everyone.
1.___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.___________________________________________________________________________________

B. Nancy worked hard to get ready to be a nurse. Nancy read everything she could find about nursing. She spent hours in the library learning about first aid. When the call came for summer volunteers at the hospital, she was the first to sign up. She was determined to prepare herself as best she could for what she hoped would be her career.
1.___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.___________________________________________________________________________________
c. There are a variety of things to do in a major metropolis. There are many parks to enjoy. Museums and aquariums have interesting exhibits. Large stores and malls have a great selection of things to buy. Many large cities also have major sports teams to watch. Everything you can dream of is at your fingertips in a massive city!
1.___________________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________________ 3.___________________________________________________________________________________ 4.___________________________________________________________________________________ 5.___________________________________________________________________________________
Worksheet #1
http://www.how-to-write-a-novel.net/description.html
http://www.englishbiz.co.uk/extras/writingskillsanecdotes.htm
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/687/05/
Cinderella's life was slavery.
Call to action
=In the future...
=Come on everyone, let's do this!
Words to begin
a concluding sentence:
in fact
in conclusion
for these reasons
as a result of
in effect
altogether
indeed
surely
clearly
to sum up
overall
truly
all in all
due to
obviously
definitely
ultimately
thus
in effect
consequently
Next Day QUIZ:
1. What is a conclusion?
2. What are the different ways to conclude a paragraph?
http://www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise/game/en14para-game-story-builder
4.
1.
3. Textbook ( Writing Academic English)
read pages 3-5,13-15,16
4.
5.
Formula for a
Concluding sentence=
+
Synonym of Topic
Synonym of Controlling idea
Use one device
to mix the
Use one of these ......."devices/tools".......
2. Bruce Bagnell's
Topic Sentence/Concluding Sentence
paragraph worksheets
=Words make picture in your mind!
=Tell a VERY short story!
=compares 2 things without using "like" or"as"
=Solves the Topic sentence's problem
rhetorical questions
WORKSHEET #2 TIME 4 WITING.COM

Lesson overview:l

To write a good paragraph, you need to come up with a topic sentence and then you need to support
it with specific details. After your paragraph is adequately supported, you will need to provide a
concluding sentence. A concluding sentence can do many things. It can let the reader know you are
finished; it can summarize what you have already written, or, it can restate your main idea.

Directions:

Put an “X” before the concluding sentence that best fits the type of paragraph.


1) There's a beach near San Diego that is very peaceful to walk on. It's long and flat, with fine
sand shifting gently under your feet. The waves surge in, slowly and calmly, never overpowering
you as you walk. The only sounds you hear are cries of gulls and a gentle wash of water.
__________ Geological processes have created this useful division between land and sea.
__________ This beach allows you to walk and meditate in peace.


2) My cat wasn't just my best friend, but she thought she was my protector. I once lounged
under a tree, reading a book, while my cat sat across the lawn. When a small dog happened by,
staring me in the face, my cat thought I was in danger. She raced across the lawn, all puffed up,
meowing furiously to make the dog leave.
__________ My cat watched over me in the same way that I took care of her.
__________ A feline is a marvel of grace and ferocity in the same lovely package.


3) Modern advances make life easier, but may also have unexpected drawbacks. Just taking
escalators rather than stairs reduces the number of calories burned each day. By letting
machines routinely do their work, people become less physically fit. And if supermarkets were to
fail, people could starve without having their own gardens to provide food.
__________ That’s when they decided they had to learn to live without so many gadgets.
__________ It may be time to question how “convenient” these advances really are.
Worksheet #2
The concluding paragraph contains:

1. Thesis (using syonyms)
2. Commenary
3. Tah-da (Like the hook but at the end!)
vivid image
anecdote
metaphor
solution
prediction
Surely
To sum up
Overall
To conclude
To create a concluding sentence
1. re-read the topic sentence
2. find synonms
3. add one of the circle devices

For example:

New rules were imposed for saving water (Topic sentence)

in fact
in conclusion
for these reasons
as a result of
in effect
altogether
indeed
surely
clearly
to sum up
overall
Water conservation
Was mandated
so that California
did not look like the Sahara desert!
+
+
+
=
Transition
word

synonym
for topic
Syn. for
Controlling idea
1 Concluding
device
Full transcript