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Heat exchangers in the Petroleum Industry

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Cindy Nshuti

on 23 November 2012

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Transcript of Heat exchangers in the Petroleum Industry

Introduction Double pipe heat exchanger Effectiveness-NTU Method:
Used to reduce “Fouling” on heat exchanger surfaces– So, heat exchangers are used in 3 main areas:
1. In the beginning:
They help generate heat
They keep the crude oil in liquid phase
They prevent dissociation of crude oil, by heating gradually

2. After fractions have been treated, they are cooled in heat exchangers and then blended together to make numerous products such as diesel and jet fuel

3. They save energy too, when the fuel gases leave the furnace they go through a convection section where heat is recovered & redistributed in exchangers to be used wherever heat is needed instead of directly heating the product line. Economically adaptable to different services and ideal for wide temperature ranges
Easy to standardize their design and construction.
Low pressure losses The Lab* Applications of Heat Exchangers in an Oil Refinery Contents We have shown that heat exchangers are used extensively in Oil Refineries and the industry depends on them:

Cross flow and Double pipe heat exchangers are very basic but there concepts are used widely in other forms of exchangers in oil refineries. Background
Cross flow heat exchanger
Double Pipe heat exchanger
References References Cross Flow Heat exchangers are applied in oil refinery, it’s an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, e.g.
gasoline, kerosene & fuel oil
Crude oil is separated by fractional distillation. Conclusion Advantages However For a larger capacity that requires thousands of square feet, it is better to use shell-and-tube heat exchangers.
They share the same concept to double pipes, but consist of a shell in which a large number of tubes are present.One fluid hot or cold flow in the shell and other hot or cold flow in the tubes. Utilized in condenser for the cooling process
Found where one of the fluids changes state
Steam condenses into water by cool water Cross-Flow heat exchanger & counter-flow heat exchanger
Counter-Flow heat exchanger:
-Most efficient in heat transfer
-Larger log mean temperature Cross-Flow heat exchanger:
-Easier & cheaper to manufacture http://www.grundfos.com/service-support/encyclopedia-search/cross-flow-heat-exchanger.html
http://www.che.utah.edu/department_equipment/Projects_Lab/H_Double_Pipe_Heat_Exchanger/MIS_Report_-_Double_Pipe.pdfhttp://www.articlesbase.com/industrial-articles/double-pipe-heat-exchangers-applications-advantages-6159506.htmlhttp://www.bukisa.com/articles/404366_double-pipe-heat-exchangerhttp://www.slideshare.net/ayazsuleman/heat-exchanger-10623916#btnNexthttp://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/16758/1/3786.pdfhttp://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IISc-BANG/Heat%20and%20Mass%20Transfer/pdf/M7/Student_Slides_M7.pdfhttp://web2.clarkson.edu/projects/subramanian/ch302/notes/shelltube.pdf Background -Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces;

It reduces thermal efficiency, decreases heat flux, increases temperature on the hot side, decreases temperature on the cold side, induces under-deposit corrosion, increases use of cooling water;

it creates tremendous economic operational losses, e.g. in industrialized nations it puts losses to be about 0.25% of their GDP, and in China it was estimated to be $4.7 billion in 2006. Any Questions ? Hence there are used in areas of the refinery where double pipes are too small.
-Through this method analysts will know the ԑ-NTU of a new and fouled heat exchanger which they can compare to the measured values and will show if they need to clean it. to help start the process;
to cool the plant and products;
to manage waste energy
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