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The French Revolution and Napoleon - Part I

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Mr. Smith

on 2 June 2015

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Transcript of The French Revolution and Napoleon - Part I

The French Revolution and Napoleon- Part I
Setting the Stage
The Three Estates
1. Clergy
2. Nobility
3. Commoners
"Weddings! I love weddings"
Marie Antoinette Louis XVI
Married Spring 1770
1770 Louis XVI (15 years old) marries Marie Antoinette (14 years old).
Hey so do u want to get married sometime, maybe catch a bite to eat or rule a country someday?
Ummmm.... I mean I
guess so. As long as I
get to wear my hair the
way I want it.
The Marriage was a royal union between two families.
- The Austrian Hapsburg's and the French Bourbon's
France and Austria allies
Was kind of a loser
Lazy and had poor leadership qualities
Louis XVI
Socially awkward
Not fit for a king
But really he could

Even he felt he was unfit for the job.

Marie Antoinette
Arch Duchess of Austria
Daughter of Maria Theresa
Young and uninterested in politics
= 97% of the population
The Clergy and the Nobility made up 3% of the population.
- Both tax exempt
- Commoners carry the
burden of debt
Top 3% (AKA Clergy and Nobility) are the wealthiest

Today (US):
Top % of the US pays close to 40% of our taxes.
Top % of the US pays close to 60 % of our taxes.
Louis XVI becomes king in 1775
France had economic troubles and his reign only made them worse.
American Revolution

France helps America by aiding them militarily and financially
Why would the French aid the US?
To get back at the British
France had recently lost colonies
in the 7 years war
(AKA The French and Indian War)
France wanted to have them lose their colonies as well
Balance of power
France is now bankrupt
6 % is going to Versailles
What can king Louise XVI do to get out of this massive debt?
He has an assembly!!!
Assembly of the Notables 1787
(gathering of representatives
of the tax exempt classes)

King Louis asks if the 1st and
2nd Estates if he can tax them

The Notables decide before any decision is made to reconvene with The Estates General.
Hold On!!!
lets talk about this
How do you think that conversation went?
The Estates General- A body of advisers for the king made up of the three estates.
Had not met since 1614!!!
175 years!!!

Finally meet in 1789
There were some issues with The Estates General


- a lot changes in 175 years
Voting system
- the three estates had equal voting power
Really expensive!!!!
France during the 1700s was viewed as one of the most advanced nations in Europe, possibly the world.

- Center of the Enlightenment
- Large population
- Powerful military
- Cultural center of art and for composers
- Powerful monarch
What efffects did the Enlightenment have on the world in the late 1700's?

- American Revolution/establishment of our nation’s government.

Throughout the next 50 years the rest of the world will see revolts and rejections of absolute monarchs.

After America, the next major place affected was France.
What effects did the Enlightenment have on the world in the late 1700's?
- American Revolution/
establishment of our nation’s government.
The American Revolution was not the only revolution that occurred in reaction to Enlightenment ideals.
Throughout the next 50 years the rest of the world will see revolts and rejections of absolute monarchs.

After America, the next major place affected was France.
I was hated by the people
of France because Austria
and France had been at
war with one another for
many years
The Clergy The Nobles The Commoners
1 Vote 1 Vote 1 Vote
The Clergy and Nobles could easily out vote the commoners 2-1.
New rising class in the commoners called the
Bourgeoisie - French merchants,
lawyers, business owners

3% = Majority?
What is the Third Estate?

What has it become until
now in the political order?

What does it ask to become?

They soon begin to wonder what the 3rd estate actually is.
The Third Estate

is the life blood of France

drives the economy

has no political power or privileges unlike the first two estates.

The Third Estate wants a constitutional monarchy
They proposed reform:

1. Double the amount of delegates for the Third Estate in
the Estates General
Clergy Nobles Commoners
300 300 600
2. Vote by head - Each delegate receives a vote

Enlightenment ideas began to spread; some nobles and clergy began to vote on the side of the commoners.
Need both for the idea to work
Louise XVI
Food was expesive

Bread is scarce
- poor harvest in the winter of 1788 and the spring of 1789 bad weather
Louis XVI only accepts the first
3rd Estate declared themselves the National Assembly

No longer 3rd Estate!!!!!

King Louis doesn't like this
-Orders the doors of the assembly to be locked!!!

The Tennis Court Oath
Storming the Bastille- July 14, 1789
Crowd demanded weapons and gunpowder
stored at the prison

Some prisoners were released

Seen as a symbol of the Revolution

Tennis Court Oath- they swore to keep meeting until they had established a just constitution
The new National Assembly decides they need arms!!!!

What do I mean by arms?

Louis XVI agrees and allows them to be a
National Assembly- Law making body

He also sends loyal troops to Paris
You are now a member of the National Assembly and you need guns!!!!

What do you do?
A Great Fear Sweeps Across France

Peasant revolt against Nobility because of a fake scandal
- Nobility was "starving" the peasants

Mass revolts throughout the countryside- PANIC!!!
August 26th

"Declaration Of The Rights
Of Man and Citiczen" is signed

Declares all men had the
right to Liberty, Property
and Security
The Decrees of August 4th

National Assembly -
abolishes feudalism

U.S. payed 5% of GDP
in 2009 toward national debt
- Unfair taxation for the first two estates
- Feudal rights

All abolished!!!

Things are looking pretty good for the king and queen

France may become a constitutional monarchy.

Until a rumor begins to spread!!!
the queen?
She is hiding grain
somewhere in
We Should grab
our pitchforks, guns
and cannon!!!
The Women's March
The women demanded that the King and Queen move to Paris.

Which they did...
Recently nobles called Emigres had left France.

They hoped the old regime would eventually be restored.
AKA house arrest
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are invited
to live at a generals house.

July 1791
They escape in disguise.
But are discovered and taken back to Paris
The king leaving Paris, allowed the Jacobins to declare that he had abdicated the throne.

Jacobins- The most radical of the revolutionaries
National Assembly then finishes making Constitution which takes power from king.

People are still starving.

National debt is still a huge issue.
King's Power-o Meter
France plunges into chaos and war following the arrest of Louis XVI
Also we're hungry so could you please feed us!!!
Thanks National Assembly=)
Legislative Assembly is created as well
Assembly splits into Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives
Legislative Assembly- could create laws
and approve or reject declarations of war.
Radicals Moderates Conservatives
Wants in: Drastic change Some change No Change
France At War!!!
Similar to "Declaration of Independence"
Motto of this documant is: "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity"
Imagine you are an absolute monarch in Prussia (neighboring country to France).

You hear that the lower classes have
removed their King from his thrown
(Louis XVI).

How would you respond?
Prussia and Austria try to convince France to reinstate Louis XVI to the thrown. Why?

Eventually France declares war on Prussia and Austria

FYI the Holy Roman Emporer Leopold II (Austria)
is Marie Antoinette's brother!!!

Eventually France is at war with:

France eventually drafts 300,000
of its citizens into its army in
order to fight in these wars

War is not going well...
Back in Paris things are a little tense, radical in the streets of Paris are putting pressure on the Legislative Assembly.

Monarch is soon declared deposed from the thrown.

Eventually the Legislative Assembly called for a vote on the new legislative body...

National convention- New legislative body created on
Sept 21 1791

It abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic.

All men can now VOTE!!!! sorry ladies :( not yet
Soon the Jacobins (radicals) take control of France

Louis XVI goes from being a king to being commoner and a prisoner

He is tried for treason by the Jacobins.

Found guilty by one vote!!!
Treason is punishable by?!!!
- french for fancy
head cutting off
I can see my
house from here!!!
King can veto
Hey Sis!!!
A main reason why France declares war is because of food shortages.

Invade Austria and steal their food!

Prussia hears this and gets nervous and joins Austria.
King Louise XVI
Executed Jan 1793
Kills everyone equally =)
Reign of Terror!!!
Hunger is still a major issue

Not all people in France support
changes of the revolution

-Prussian forces soon threaten to attack Paris
-Parisian mob captures royal family -kill guards
-Mob breaks into prisons -killing over 1,000, including many who support king
Mean while in Paris
Maximilein Robespierre
I'm Paranoid :)
Maximilein Robespierre

-Jacobin leader rules France for a year

Leader of the Committee for Public Safety (dictator)
Committee for Public Safety
Reign of Terror

Robespierre’s rule
-killed anyone who
"threatened" the revolution

-Thousands die during the Terror,
including former allies and Marie
Antoinette (16,000)

85% of those who die during the terror are middle or lower class
Send the Army to
"go shopping"
In July 1794, members of the National convention fear for their own safety

Robespierre arrested, and executed

Terror results in public opinion shifting away from radicals
Moderate leaders write new constitution
(3rd attempt at a new government)

Two-house legislature and five man directory (executive) restore order (Upper middle class)

New government makes Napoleon Bonaparte commander of armies

I don't like you if you are part of the Church or Royalty!!! So.... Off with your head!!!
Come on bro
Lets get this
party started!!!

Eventually the French start to fight back and begin winning against Austria and Prussia

Marie Antoinette was tried and executed in October 1793
-12 men now ran the government

-Emergency government

-Hugely political and extremely paranoid!!!
# Corrupt
(2nd attempt at a new government)
# poetic justice
Full transcript