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States of Matter

by Amaya Nordos 3rd Hour Science X

Amaya Nordos

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of States of Matter

0 + - = 9 8 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 c 1/24/13 States of Matter! BY Amaya Nordos According to an objects shape, volume, and particle information, I can describe the state of matter the object is in. Shape Volume Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Definite Definite Shape of
container Definite None None None None Particle
Movement Particle
Attraction Particle
Energy Very
little Sliding past
each other Fast Fast Strong Some Almost
none Almost
none Very
little Some Lots Lots Examples Solids- Person, ice cube,
crayon, blanket Liquids- Milk, Water,
Orange juice,Liquid Nitrogen Gas- Oxygen, Helium Plasma- Fluorescent lights,
Lightning, Fire I can describe the difference between crystalline and amorphous solids. Crystalline Amorphous Characteristic
geometrical shape Bounded by
faces or planes Sharp boiling and
melting points Three-dimensional,
highly ordered
arrangements of particles Planes of crystal intersect
at particular angles No definite geometrical shape Melt over a wide
range of temperature
No sharp melting points Particles are randomly
arranged in three-dimension Crystalline:
Diamonds Amorphous:
Rubber (tire) Sugar is a real life example of a Crystalline solid.

You use sugar to make cookies and lemonade. Plastic is a real life example of an Amorphous solid.

There is plastic in playground slides and cups. Amorphous solids are formed due to a sudden cooling of liquid. Crystalline solids that are found in nature - diamonds, quartz, pyrite and snowflakes. Crystalline solids are formed due to liquid rock cooling and hardening Surface Tension A force that acts on the particles at the surface of a liquid.

"Film" or the top layer of particles bend until they break. The particles bending in this water droplet will soon break. The bending particles in
this water droplet already broke. Amorphous solid that are found in nature- obsidian, and glass Amorphous solids that are man-made-
Commercial glass, plastic, and rubber. Crystalline solids that are man-made -
sugar and salt. (Lightning striking sand will naturally cause glass to form at its strike point.) Why would you want a Crystalline solid over an Amorphous?

If you wanted something hard or something to break something else you would want a Crystalline solid because it is sturdier and stronger then an amorphous solid. Why would you want an Amorphous solid over a Crystalline?

If you wanted something that bends or something that you could make a sculpture with or to make something else with you would want an Amorphous because they are bendier and more flexible then a Crystalline solid. What liquids have more surface tension
then others? Surface tension is useful to Water bugs because it lets them glide and walk on the surface of water When they use an eye/water dropper the water doesn't come out in a stream, it comes in little drops,which the shape of the drops is caused by surface tension. The reason its not in a sphere shape is because gravity is pulling on it. For Eye Doctors surface tension is useful. Boyle's Law a principle that describes the relationship between the pressure and volume of gas.
States that as the volume of a gas changes, so does it,'s pressure. Pressure V
e Example:
Blowing up a balloon Charles' Law an experimental gas law which describes how gasses tend to expand when heated.
States that as the temperature of a gas changes, so does the volume. V
e Temperature (k) When you spray a Deodorant can, when it hits the air, it gets colder because the pressure releases. Science
by Ros25 How to use CK12 on an iPad
by 44Emma44 States of matter
By 123fefero How to stack liquids
by EmTNebraska Awesome biking experiment!!!
by watch me99 The Brain
by LaurR:) Interview with scientists
by KenJh11 pickles Amaya's lab experiment
Surface tension for Mrs. Bailey's Science X class Amaya's lab by Amaya77 Amaya's la.. Solid- particles are tightly packed
Liquids- particles slide by each other
Gas- moving particles
Plasma- moving electrified particles I can name eight major changes of state and tell each change's opposite I can also describe what is happening at the molecular level during each change. Solid Gas Liquid Deposition Sublimation Freezing Melting Condensation Evaporation Ionization Plasma Endothermic Changes Need heat for them to continue or start. They will feel cold because they absorb heat.

Reactions that have a positive value- Endothermic, energy is taken up. Examples:
Melting ice cubes
baking bread
cooking egg Energy is gained by substance change Exothermic Changes refers to a reaction that produces heat
It will burn you and gives off heat.

Reactions that have a negative value- Exothermic, energy id released Examples:
making ice cubes
a candle flame
burning sugar Solid to liquid
Really dense to less dense Liquid to gas
Less dense to not dense Solid- Really dense
Liquid- less dense
Gas- not dense
Plasma- not dense The density can change when there's a constant volume if the mass changes The density can change when there's a constant mass if the volume changes. I can connect the concept of density to the spacing of particles in solids, liquids and gases. Sources Mrs.Bailey's mini lesson










Yahoo!.com Molecular change when the phase changes:
Solid to liquid - molecules spread out; become less rigid
Solid to gas - molecules separate
Liquid to gas - molecules separate
Liquid to solid - molecules become rigid
Gas to plasma - molecules energize
Gas to solid - molecules become rigid
Gas to liquid - molecules come together, but have a non-rigid shape The triple point is the temperature and pressure at which the solid, liquid, and gas phases exist simultaneously. The critical temperature of a substance is the temperature at and above which vapor of the substance cannot be liquefied, no matter how much pressure is applied. The critical point is the temperature where a substance will always be a gas regardless of the pressure. Molecules are widely separated, move around freely, move at high speeds and have variable volume and shape. Molecules are close together, move around slowly and have fixed volume and variable shape. The critical pressure of a substance is the pressure required to liquefy a gas at its critical temperature. A supercritical fluid is a liquid/gas under extreme pressure. A solid is matter in which the molecules are very close together, cannot move around and have fixed volume and shape. A vapour (vapor) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical point. This means that the vapour can be condensed to a liquid or to a solid by increasing its pressure without reducing the temperature. State at which a liquid can be compressed without turning into a solid. Amaya's lab

Question - Will surface tension let liquids stack on top of each other?

Background - Some liquids that don't have similar surface tension are water, rubbing alcohol, and dish soap.

Hypothesis - I think that if we put the liquids in this order, rubbing alcohol, water, and then dish soap, then the rubbing alcohol and the water will float to the top so the order will be dish soap, water then rubbing alcohol.

Equipment - 3 small syringes, water, two types of food coloring, soap, rubbing alcohol, jar, pencil, paper and a notebook.

Procedure -
1. set out your equipment
2.Write water, rubbing alcohol, and dish soap out on your paper (to keep organized)
3. color two of your liquids different colors
4.fill each syringe up to the top with one of water, one of rubbing alcohol and one dish soap.
5. get your jar ready
6. squirt rubbing alcohol into the jar
7. squirt the water into the jar
8. squirt the dish soap into the jar
9. see what happens
10. write down the data you see in your notebook.

Experiment - see flash drive

Data - It turns out that the rubbing alcohol and the water mix but there is a very faint line you can see that they did stack. Dish soap had the most surface tension and rubbing alcohol slightly had the least.

Conclusion - My hypothesis was correct and surface tension does let you stack liquids.
Thanks for watching! THE END
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