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The motivational pull of storytelling

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Liam Printer

on 15 November 2017

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Transcript of The motivational pull of storytelling

The motivational pull of storytelling
Creating self-determined learners
Discussion and Conclusion
TPRS meets the needs of SDT:
autonomy, competence, relatedness
Perceived as highly motivating from the students' perspective
Confirms findings from other L2 studies
What is TPRS?
Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling (Ray and Seely, 1997)
'Ask a story': Co-creation of bizarre stories through 'compelling, comprehensible input' (Krashen, 1981) with most frequent structures.
What is Self-Determination Theory (SDT)?
SDT argues that we can increase intrinsic motivation by meeting the needs of
autonomy, competence
(Ryan and Deci, 2000)
Language Learner (L2) Motivation
Focused on individual traits
How L2 motivation is fostered, maintained and encouraged is under-studied (Boo et al. 2015)
Research on strategies that motivate language learners is scarce (Dörnyei, 2010)
Engagement has recently been added (Oga-Baldwin, 2017)
Teachers leaving profession
Students dropping languages
What is education for?
Motivation, enjoyment and engagement = Life-long learners
Strategies that motivate both teacher and students
The Research Study
Context and Participants:

International school in Switzerland; 13 Year 10 students; Vast language learning experience
Group interview; Classroom observations; Focus group interviews; 3 months
New to my classes or new to TPRS; Role of the teacher
TPRS is as effective, or better, that other approaches (Lichtman, 2015)
Reduces the 'affective filter' that causes anxiety in adolescents
Few studies on its impact on student and teacher motivation
What does the research tell us?
Moving from extrinsic to intrinsic?
Activities that meet the needs of autonomy, competence and relatedness can move students from extrinsic to intrinsic motivations
Teacher Motivation
Student enjoyment and participation over extrinsic rewards like pay and recognition
Motivated teachers inspire their students to be motivated too (Kassagby et al. 2001)
Strategies that motivate both teacher and students are crucial
TPRS’s goal of 100% comprehension meant
“you do understand it better”
(Gwen, FGI2) thus raising their feelings of proficiency
It erased their anxiety of
“saying the wrong thing”
(Steven, FGI2)
The fact that
“everyone contributes”
(Steven, Aidan; FGI1), meant participants felt
“they'll be heard so their confidence will really be built”
(Kevin, FGI1).
A highly motivating factor of TPRS was the ability to
“contribute any idea”
“it'll make this story”
(Kevin, FGI2).
“when you give an idea and it gets accepted you feel really good”
(Donna, FGI2), while others also
“felt better”
when they could
“add to the class”
(Prue, FGI1).
Use of words such as ‘everyone’, ‘together’ and ‘everybody’ were employed repeatedly throughout the data
Stories were
“very extroverted”
“everybody will feel included”
“everybody gets to participate”
(Kevin; Donna, FGI1).
TPRS was perceived as
overwhelmingly positive
TPRS satisfied needs of competence, relatedness and autonomy ->
Increased motivation
Visible signs of excitement, enjoyment and engagement
Teacher Motivation
By being personable, enthusiastic or simply “with their vibes” and by being “themselves”, FL teachers can inspire their students
“The teacher has to be into it as well because if you're not having fun then neither am I”
(Matt, FGI1).
Teachers are key in TPRS - things could “get out of hand easily” (Prue, FGI1).
The teacher
“kept the ideas going”
through questioning and “completely random” twists (Amy, FGI1).
Highly motivating factor: TPRS allowed students to develop a strong relationship with their teacher.
TPRS allows the teachers' own personality to flourish and to have fun in the classroom.
Strategies that motivate both teacher and students are key and TPRS is an approach that offers this possibility
Why Stories?
Stories as educational tool across cultures for centuries
Ability to hold young learners’ interest and attention (Machado 2012; McMaster 1998)
Aids language learning and comprehension through intent listening (Whaley, 2002).
In other FL activities students felt there was
“nothing they could do to change anything”
(Prue, FGI2).
TPRS stories meant students could
“steer the learning”
“effect what would happen next”
(Amy, FGI2).
Students reported
“feeling motivated”
in the TPRS class as
“you're more involved and more in control of your own learning”
TPRS was broadly reported as
“way more effective”
(Matt, FGI1) than other methods.
It was
“better than just sitting down learning vocabulary”
(Diana, FGI1), as it greatly improved their competence for speaking.
“I believe that through storytelling I improved
a lot

(Amy, FGI1)
“You don’t get judged”
because you are
“doing it as a group”
(Prue, FGI2).
Everyone was
“so energetic and open and talkative”
(Prue, FGI2), which
“makes you more motivated and more eager to learn”
(Orla, FGI1).
“The reason why [storytelling] is less scary is because everybody's sharing their ideas and modifying them to form the story so everybody is a part of the story”
(Aidan, FGI2)
Extrinsically motivated behaviours
rewards; fear or shame; short-term achievement but no longevity
Intrinsically motivated behaviours
- pure engagement, enjoyment and interest; increased self-confidence, desire towards learning and sustained positive learning behaviours

- choice; self-direction; student ownership of learning
- students’ perceptions about their capacity to achieve success
- sense of belonging, support and inclusion; relationships
Highly autonomous nature acknowledged positively multiple times.
Increased sense of capacity, ability and understanding
Sense of belonging to the group through combined creation of story
The teacher's personality is allowed to flourish
But role of the teacher still needs further research
Boo, Z., Dörnyei, Z., Ryan, S., 2015. L2 motivation research 2005–2014: Understanding a publication surge and a changing landscape. System 55, 145–157.
Carr, S., 2016. Motivation, educational policy and achievement: a critical perspective. Routledge, Abingdon.
Dörnyei, Z., 2010. Questionnaires in second language research: construction, administration, and processing, 2nd ed. ed, Second language acquisition research.
Dörnyei, Z., 2001. Motivational strategies in the language classroom, Cambridge language teaching library. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kassabgy, O., Boraie, D., Schmidt, R., 2001. Values, rewards, and job satisfaction in ESL/EFL. Motivation and second language acquisition 213–237.
Krashen, S., 1981. Second language acquisition and second language learning, Language teaching methodology series. Elsevier, Oxford.
Lichtman, K., 2015. Research on TPR Storytelling, in: Fluency Through TPR Storytelling : Achieving Real Language Acquisition in School : 7th Edition. pp. 364–380.
Machado, J.M., 2012. Early Childhood Experiences in Language Arts: Early Literacy, 10 edition. ed. Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, CA.
McMaster, J.C., 1998. “Doing” Literature: Using Drama to Build Literacy Classrooms: The Segue for a Few Struggling Readers. Reading Teacher 51, 574–84.
Oga-Baldwin, W.Q., Nakata, Y., Parker, P., Ryan, R.M., 2017. Motivating young language learners: A longitudinal model of self-determined motivation in elementary school foreign language classes. Contemporary Educational Psychology 49, 140–150.
Printer, L., 2017. Student perceptions on the motivational pull of Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling: a Self-Determination Theory perspective. (Doctor of Education). University of Bath.
Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L., 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American psychologist 55, 68–78.
Seely, C., Ray, B., 1997. Fluency Through TPR Storytelling, 5th edition. ed. Command Performance Language Institute, Blaine Ray Workshops, Berkeley, Cal.
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
© Liam Printer
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