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Chapter 11 - Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongo
Transcript of Chapter 11 - Pastoral Peoples on the Global Stage: The Mongo
By: Isabella Wright, Cameron Peterson, and Brenden Black
Pastoral Societies of Our World
Mounted warfare made series of nomadic empires possible across the steppes of Inner Eurasia and parts of Africa
Large scale nomadic empires before the mongols:
-- Xiongnu, who lived in the Mongolian steppes north of China
Pastoralists of History
Lack of Cultural Influence
-- Religious toleration, conversion of some Mongols
-- Foreign Officials in government positions (Chinese, Muslim, etc.)
-- Left an extremely modest cultural imprint on the world
Military was the key to Mongol success
-- Good timing (decline of Abbasid caliphate and division of China)
-- Military structure, discipline, and loyalty
Acquiring of wealth and peoples
-- Incorporation of conquered peoples
-- Accumulation of wealth
Explaining the Mongol Movement
China and the Mongols
-- Most difficult and extended of the Mongols' conquests.
-- Chinese dynastic title, the Yuan.
-- Khubilai Khan: China's Mongol ruler, improved China.
Persia and the Mongols
-- More abrupt and destructive than China's conquest.
-- Massacre, Heavy taxes, and torture of Persian peasants.
-- Government operations in Persian hands.
-- Conversion to Islam.
Russia and the Mongols
-- Assault matched or exceeded the Persian or Chinese conquests.
-- Many Russians were sold into slavery.
-- Russian Orthodox Church flourished.
-- Moscow becomes core of Russia.
Towards a World Economy
-- Promoted international commerce.
-- Provided secure environments for merchants.
-- Wanted to become even more wealthy.
Diplomacy on a Eurasian Scale
-- Prompted diplomatic relationships in Eurasia.
-- Death of Khan Ogodei.
-- European rulers wanted to convert Mongols to Christianity.
Cultural Exchanges in the Mongol Realm
-- Actors, musicians, and wrestlers provided entertainment for the Mongols.
-- Movement facilitated exchange of ideas and techniques.
-- Crops circulated within the Mongol domain.
The Plague: An Afro-Eurasian Pandemic
-- "Black Death"- originated in China, and carried by rodents.
-- Wiped out about half of Europe's population.
-- Labor shortages caused sharp conflict between scarce workers and the rich.
-- Mongol Empire devastated, and lost control of the Chinese, Persian, and Russian civilizations.
-- Europeans gained naval technology and military advantages.
The Network of the Mongols in Eurasia
Emergence of Chinggis Khan and unification of Mongolian tribes
-- Temujin, Rags to Riches story
-- Difficulty of uniting feuding tribes
-- Given the name "Khan", or "great leader"
Expansion was the only way to keep the unity achieved by Chinggis Khan
-- Lack of a new common goal, needed to keep the unity, resulted to conquests
Military conquests began on the agricultural societies to the south and the Mongol Empire started to form
-- Set the stage for a series of military campaigns, massive killings, and empire building
The Rise of the Mongol Empire
Pastoral societies shared several important features:
-- smaller populations than agricultural societies
-- lived in small and widely scattered encampments
-- organized themselves in kinship based groups
-- many held slaves
Women led much less restricted lives
They were very mobile and traveled frequently
Constructing large states was difficult because the mongols lacked surplus wealth
Mastered the use of environments unsuitable for agriculture
- Each person will write down one point from the presentation on a sticky note.
- Random points will be chosen, and one side must argue pro-Mongol, while the other side argues against the Mongols.
Now it's your turn to decide...
Tolerance and brutality
-- Submission resulted in assimilation and cultural toleration
-- Resistance resulted in destruction, set examples
-- Impressive mobility of people as well as materials
-- Census, taxation
-- Relay stations for communication and trading posts
-- Encouraged commerce within the empire