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Chapter 2: Governance in Singapore

Social Studies
by

Pei Jie Li

on 10 April 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 2: Governance in Singapore

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Images from Shutterstock.com { Role of the People } Power { Guiding Principles of Governance } 'Leadership is Key' Chapter Two:
Governance in Singapore Government: Legislature Government of Singapore responsible for making important decisions guided by a set of principles Ensures stability in the government
Meets people’s needs
Builds a nation
Maintains sovereignty manages resources of
country to carry out
functions GOVERNANCE makes laws Executive executes laws
and policies Judiciary ensures laws are
justly carried out + Responsibility to choose the right leaders Constructive Feedback communication channels REACH Reaching Everyone for
Active Citizenry@Home Media e.g. Forum Page in
The Straits Times 'Anticipate Change and Stay Relevant' 'Reward for Work and
Work for Reward' 'A Stake for Everyone,
Opportunities for All' Email, Blog, SMS 'Leadership is Key' leaders must do what is right,
rather than what is popular. HONEST and CAPABLE leaders needed to maintain stability in the government and make the right decisions for the country. They need to have moral courage and integrity. highly valued among leaders of Singapore
must be incorruptible to win the confidence and respect of the people. good leadership and governance do not occur by chance.
potential leaders selected and
groomed. 'Anticipate Change and Stay Relevant' decisions made by government needs to be forward-looking in anticipation of future changes. open to new ideas and be willing to take risks.
students' potential increased by emphasising creative thinking to come up with innovative ideas.
every Singaporean needs to upgrade their knowledge and skills from time to time to stay employable and contribute to the nation. 'Reward for Work and
Work for Reward' Meritocracy as a key part, a system rewarding hard work and talent. rewarding people on their abilities and hard work encourages them to do well.
e.g. Edusave Scholarship (top 10%) and
Merit Bursary (top 25%) everyone given an equal opportunity to achieve their best and be rewarded for their performance, regardless of their race, religion and socio-economic background. 'A Stake for Everyone,
Opportunities for All' being involved in decision-making creates a greater sense of belonging to the country inclusive society Safeguard future through collective efforts and intelligence. QUESTION
OLD
ASSUMPTIONS! TRAPPED
IN THE PAST Singapore's population growth.. 1950s & 60s Post-war 'Baby Boom' PEACE + STABILITY } businesses employment more confident
6-7 children
security at old age 1.02 million people to 1.64 million in 10 years.. POPULATION balanced with DEVELOPMENTAL
GOALS too big too small PROBLEMS hinder growth and development of nation. UNEMPLOYMENT SHORTAGE OF HOUSING INSUFFICIENT HEALTHCARE
SERVICES INSUFFICIENT EDUCATION control population growth 1966:
Government set up the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board Population
Policy larger families Population Policy:
Formation & Changes over the years. 1966 - 1981 5 YEAR PLANS { smaller families maintain replacement level at 2.1 children 'Stop at 2' encourages contraception
legalises abortion 3 or more children, no paid maternity
allocation of government flats, no priority
4 or more children, no income tax relief
each additional child, increase in delivery charges in hospitals Singapore's population decline.. 1980 Fertility rate: 1.82/woman number of babies < replacement value } family planning policy increasing cost of living people marrying at later age more jobs were created in industries
larger workforce to sustain nation's development
unattractive to MNCs (multinational companies)
ageing population
weaken Singapore's defence force TFR = 1.20 2011: TFR below replacement value of 2.1 for more than 30years. Ageing Population.. ..life expectancy increased from 66 years in 1970 to 82 years in 2010. birth
rate + life
expectancy = ageing

shrinking + citizen population and workforce. smaller and less energetic workforce
less vibrant and innovative economy
lack of workers in companies
slow business activity
shrinking job and employment opportunities
difficulty in matching higher aspirations of better educated and mobile population YOUNG PEOPLE WILL LEAVE!! for more exciting and growing global cities.. Government's
Actions.. The Graduate Mothers Scheme Prime Minister then, Lee Kuan Yew, observed that graduates were marrying later and women were bearing fewer children. ..based on research, education level of parents had direct impact on performance of children in schools. PM Lee felt female graduates should have more children to ensure higher chance of new generation workforce being more educated. 1984 encourages marriages among graduates and to have more children sparked off debate and unhappiness among people because they felt neglected and needed more incentives withdrawn in 1985 Three or More If You Can Afford It 1987 ..aims to bring Singapore's population growth back to replacement level of 2.1 children per woman. government took cautious approach because of recession in 1985
MNCs withdrew investments
workers retrenched existing measures in Marriage & Parenthood Package: Medisave Maternity Package
Child Development Account
Parenthood Tax Rebate
Qualifying Child Relief Other Pro-Family Measures: equalised medical benefits
grandparent caregiver relief
5-day work week for Civil Service
extended maternity leave Parenthood Priority Scheme - new HDB flats with proportion set aside
Parenthood Provisional Housing Scheme - rent flat while awaiting completion of their HDB flats
1 week of Government-Paid Paternity Leave
1 week of Government-Paid Shared Parental Leave MARRIAGE & PARENTHOOD PACKAGE introduced in 2001, enhanced in 2004, 2008 and 2013
faster & easier to get housing
subsidised conception & delivery costs
defraying child-raising & healthcare costs
balance work and family commitments
encouraging fathers to play bigger roles in children's upbringing Foreign talents to enhance competitiveness 1989 - government relaxed its immigration policy to attract foreign talent with skills Singapore required.

Many private companies also offered assistance to FTs e.g. relocation and settling down.

Cosmopolitan society - inflow of foreigners, help them develop a sense of attachment.

Immigration policy constantly being reviewed to ensure balance between economic needs of country and needs of people. Ageing Population 3 reasons: post-war baby boom - over 900,000 will be aged 65 years and above by 2030. declining birth rates - young people, decrease.
- senior citizens, increase. higher life expectancy - standard of living, health and nutrition, developments in medical science, improved. Problems: healthcare & social services smaller security forces strain on working population reduced competitiveness Senior citizens as assets to society by 2030, 19% Singaporeans > 65 years old senior citizens as contributing members of society
share their valuable skills, knowledge, talent and work experience 'Many Helping Hands' approach Individual Responsibility Family Support Community Help Government Support if given opportunities.. add value to public & private organisations
boost family life EVERYONE has a part to play in helping the nation to prepare for an ageing population. SHARED RESPONSIBILITY reduced burden less dependent on increasing taxes
save resources for other needs Individual Responsibility early lifelong planning in order to age gracefully Healthy Lifestyle Financial Planning maintain healthy lifestyle
watch diet
exercise regularly plan retirement early & be financially prepared for life
attend talks
read relevant materials Family Support strong & stable families = social stability & harmony emotional
+
social
+
financial
support measures introduced by government to strengthen family bonds: Senior Citizens' Week
(annually since Nov 1979) encourages elderly to stay active in family and community
promotes positive attitude towards ageing and aged, reminding of their roles in creating socially conducive environment Grandparents' Day bring families together
show appreciation for elderly Community Help provide healthcare and social services subsidies given by government to voluntary welfare organisations providing community-based services for senior citizens
e.g. Home Nursing Foundation for Elders
community organisations offering free health checks and organise recreational activities for senior citizens
e.g. services and activities to help senior citizens remain physically, mentally and socially active Government Support Tribunal for the Maintenance of Parents Tax relief - for taking care of elderly.
- for contributing to CPF (own or elderly's).
- for grandparents taking care of grandchild/
grandchildren while both parents at work. Central Provident Fund (CPF) 3 accounts in this compulsory savings scheme
- Special Account (retirement, emergency and investment)
- Medisave Account (medical expenses)
- Retirement Account (at 55, can withdraw until a minimum sum; from 62, can receive monthly sum) Public housing schemes 1st-time buyers of HDB can get housing grant in area where parents live
Full transcript