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Jeffrey Sinn

on 16 May 2013

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Transcript of Genocide

Genocide Def.:is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group. term "genocide" did not exist before 1944 Polish-Jewish lawyer named Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959) sought to describe Nazi policies of systematic murder, including the destruction of the European Jews. He formed the word "genocide" 1970: Cambodia
1980s: Iraq
1990s: Bosnia
1994: Rwanda
2003: Darfur The Holocaust I. The Persecution Begins Holocaust: the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime A. Jews Targeted Anti-Semitism: is prejudice against or hostility towards Jews. Nuremberg Laws: stripped Jews of their German citizenship, jobs, and property and not marrying or having sexual relation with persons of "German or German-related blood. B. Kristallnacht "Night of Broken Glass"
Nazi storm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues across Germany. Kristallnacht figures as an essential turning point in Nazi Germany's persecution of Jews, which culminated in the attempt to annihilate the European Jews II. Hitler's "Final Solution" 1939 only a quarter million Jews remained in Germany
Other nations had millions
"Final Solution": a policy of genocide. A. The condemned Aryans were a superior people
strength and purity of this "master race" must be preserved Gypsies: an "inferior race"
Freemasons: supporters of the "Jewish conspiracy" to rule the world
Jehovah's Witnesses: refused to join the army or salute Hitler The Final Solution was implemented in Poland with special Nazi death squads. B. Forced Relocation The Einsatzgruppen became "mobile killing units" charged with liquidating all political enemies of the Reich. According to historian, Raul Hilberg, the mobile killing units murdered 1.4 million Jews between 1941 and the end of the war in 1945. C. Concentration Camps Concentration Camps:
Labor camps
In theory designed not to kill prisoners, but to turn them into "useful members" of the Theird Reich.
set up to imprison political opponents and protesters
expanded and used it to warehouse other "undesirables" III. The Final Stage Wannsee 1942/murder by poison gas
bullets did not kill fast enough Six such death camps existed: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Belzec, Chelmno, Majdanek, Sobibor, and Treblinka Sept 21, 1939 - Heydrich issues instructions to SS Einsatzgruppen (special action squads) in Poland regarding treatment of Jews, stating they are to be gathered into ghettos near railroads for the future "final goal." He also orders a census and the establishment of Jewish administrative councils within the ghettos to implement Nazi policies and decrees. ghettos: segregated Jewish areas in certain Polish cities.
The ghettos lacked the necessary food, water, space, and sanitary facilities required by so many people living within their constricted boundaries. Holocaust
Death Camps To Understand the Holocaust you need to understand these six words... Objectives Examine the roots and progress of Hitler's campaign against the Jews.

Analyze and discuss the goals of Hitler's "final solution" and the nature of the Nazi death camps.

Judge and determine the United States responses to the Holocaust. boycott Jewish shops and businesses in 1933, measure after measure is introduced to expel Jews from the civil service, the professions and from one economic sector after another. Holocaust Def: the Nazi attempt to kill all Jews under their control anti-Semitism: prejudice and discrimination against Jewish people Expropriation 12th
Century Crusades: “You have no
right to live among us as Jews.”

 16th
Century Ghettos: “You have no
right to live among us.”

 20th
Century Nazi Party: “You have no
right to live.” Removal of Jews from Public Education and Civil Life 1933-1938 Germans invaded Poland (September,
1939), Mira and eighteen members of her family
were separated from their non-Jewish neighbors
and forced to live in ghettos, where they suffered
from hunger, extreme cold, and typhus. Concentration Earliest camps include: Dachau, Sachsenhausen, and Buchenwald which advertises the Nazi film “The Eternal Jew,” served to dehumanize the German Jews. The film “The Eternal Jew” itself compares the Jewish people to rats. By dehumanizing Jews, the Nazi leaders began to prepare for Hitler’s “Final Solution.” Jews- make wars longer, start wars: Wannsee Conference How was the Final Solution going to be organised? Shooting was too inefficient as the bullets were needed for the war effort Jews were to be rounded up and put into transit camps called Ghettoes The Jews living in these Ghettos were to be used as a cheap source of labour. Conditions in the Ghettos were designed to be so bad that many die whilst the rest would be willing to leave these areas in the hope of better conditions On arrival the Jews would go through a process called ‘selection.’ The remaining Jews were to be shipped to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. Women, children, the old & the sick were to be sent for ‘special treatment.’ The young and fit would go through a process called ‘destruction through work.’ How did the Nazi decide who was Jewish? At the Wannsee conference it was decided that if one of person’s parents was Jewish, then they were Jewish.
However, if only one of their grandparents had been Jewish then they could be classified as being German.
In 1940, all Jews had to have their passports stamped with the letter ‘J’ and had to wear the yellow Star of David on their jacket or coat. Where were the Death Camps built? Why do you think that they located them here? The work of the Einsatzgruppen What tactics did the Nazis use to get the Jews to leave the Ghettos? Tactics Starvation The Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto were only fed a 1000 calories a day . A Human being needs 2400 calories a day to maintain their weight Terror The SS publicly shot people for smuggling food or for any act of resistance Deception The Jews were told that they were going to ‘resettlement areas’ in the East. In some Ghettos the Jews had to purchase their own train tickets. They were told to bring the tools of their trade and pots and pans. Hungry people are easier to control New arrivals at the Death camps were given postcards to send to their friends. Children Dying of Starvation in the Warsaw Ghetto SS Tactics: Dehumanisation The SS guards who murdered the Jews were brainwashed with Anti-Semitic propaganda.

The Jews were transported in cattle cars in terrible conditions.

Naked, dirty and half starved people look like animals, which helped to reinforce the Nazi propaganda.

The SS used to train their new guards by encouraging them to set fire to a pit full of live victims – usually children. Tactics: What happened to new arrivals? Deception & Selection At Auschwitz the trains pulled into a mock up of a normal station. The Jews were helped off the cattle trucks by Jews who were specially selected to help the Nazis At some death camps the Nazis would play records of classical music to help calm down the new arrivals. At Auschwitz the new arrivals were calmed down by a Jewish orchestra playing classical music. All new arrivals went through a process known as ‘selection.’ Mothers, children, the old & sick were sent straight to the ‘showers’ which were really the gas chambers. The able bodied were sent to work camp were they were killed through a process known as ‘destruction through work.’ Entrance to Auschwitz Notice how it has been built to resemble a railway station Auschwitz Orchestra Map of Auschwitz New Arrivals ‘Destruction Through Work’ ‘Showers’ Auschwitz from the air Notice how the Death camp is set out like a factory complex The Nazis used industrial methods to murder the Jews and process their dead bodies The Gas Chambers The Nazis would force large groups of prisoners into small cement rooms and drop canisters of Zyklon B, or prussic acid, in its crystal form through small holes in the roof.
These gas chambers were sometimes disguised as showers or bathing houses. The SS would try and pack up to 2000 people into this gas chamber The outside of the Gas Chamber Notice the Ovens easy located near the Gas Chambers Processing the bodies Specially selected Jews known as the sonderkommando were used to to remove the gold fillings and hair of people who had been gassed.
The Sonderkommando Jews were also forced to feed the dead bodies into the crematorium. The Ovens at Dachau Dead bodies waiting to be processed Shoes waiting to be processed by the sonderkommando Taken inside a huge glass case in the Auschwitz Museum. This represents one day's collection at the peak of the gassings, about twenty five thousand pairs. The ‘Final Solution’ In January 1942, Himmler decided to change tactics once again and called a special conference at Wannsee.
At this conference it was decided that the existing methods were too inefficient and that a new ‘Final Solution’ was necessary.
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