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HeLa/Henrietta Lacks Medical and Science Timeline
Transcript of HeLa/Henrietta Lacks Medical and Science Timeline
First immortal cells cultured. Collected from Henrietta's cervix. Named HeLa cells.
Henrietta dies from cervical cancer. 1951 1952 1952:
HeLa used to grow massive amount of cells.
HeLa "factory" opens at the Tuskegee Institute. Produces HeLa cells on a massive scale.
HeLa cells shipped in postal mail. First cells to ever do this.
Jonas Sacks develops a Polio Vaccine using HeLa cells. 1953 1953:
HeLa chromosomes visible by hemotoxylin stain.
HeLa cells become first cloned cells. 1954 1954:
HeLa cells become mass produced by Microbiological Associates.
"Helen Lane" begins to appear in reference to HeLa.
Chester Southam experiments with cancer by injecting patients with HeLa. He does this without consent. 1957 1957:
"Informed Consent" appears in court documents. 1960 1960:
HeLa goes into space prior to astronauts to test the effects of space on human cells. 1965 1965:
HeLa is fused with mouse cells. Creates the first Human/Animal Hybrid.
The Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York find Southam guilty for unprofessional conduct and they require stricter rules for human research and consent. 1966 1966:
Stanley Gartler says that HeLa have contaminated many cell lines. 1971 1971:
Because George Gey had died in 1971, HeLa is correctly identified as coming from Henrietta Lacks. 1973 1973:
Lacks find out that Henrietta's cells are still alive.
Hopkins takes samples from other Lacks without consent.
HeLa is used to study the behavior of Salmonella in humans. 1974 1974:
The Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects (the Common Rule) requires informed consent for all human-subject research. 1984 1984:
John Moore unsuccessfully sues his doctor and the Board of Regents of the University of California for property rights of his tissues.
HeLa used to help show that HPV-16 and HPV-18 causes cancer. 1985 1985:
Henrietta's medical record published without family approval. 1986 1986:
HeLa used to study HIV. HeLa infected with HIV virus. 1988 1988:
California Court of Repeals rule in Moore's favor. Patients have the power to control their tissues. 1989 1989:
Researchers discover enzyme called telomerase which stops cells from dying. 1991 1991:
Supreme Court of California rules against John Moore. If tissue is removed from body it is no longer yours. 1993 1993
HeLa used to study Tuberculosis. 1996 1996:
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act makes it illegal for medical records to be revealed publicly.
Rolland Pattilo names October 11, HeLa Day. 1999 1999:
RAND Corporation published report that says 307 million tissue samples from 178 million people are stored in the USA. Most taken without consent. 2005 2005:
HeLa cells used in Nanotechnology Research.
Native American Havasupai tribe sue Arizona State University to remove tissue samples taken without consent.
6000 patients sue Washington University to remove tissue samples from sample bank. 2 courts rule against patients.
US Government issued patents for nearly 20 percent of known human genes. 2006 2006:
NIH researcher is charged for providing thousands of tissue samples to pharmaceutical companies in exchange for half a million dollars. 2009 2009:
National Institutes of Health spend $13.5 million to make a bank of fetal blood samples.
Parents in Minnesota and Texas sue to stop fetal bank because blood can be traced back to infant and because it was performed without consent.
150,000 scientists sue Myraid Genetics for patenting the human breast-cancer gene. Inhibits scientific research. The Future of HeLa? 1955 1955:
Southam asks for volunteers at the Ohio State Penitentiary. Received 95; later 150. 1956 1956:
Southam conducts research on Ohio State Penitentiary volunteers. He does not fully disclose what he is doing. Injects cancer into patients. 1961 1961:
Hayflick number discovered; cells reach their limit when they have doubled 50 times. 1969 1969:
Hopkins tests 7,000 neighborhood children if there is a genetic predisposition to criminal behavior. 1978 1978:
Protection of Human Subjects in Medical Experimentation Act. 2008 2008:
Genetic Info. Nondiscrimination Act. 2010 2010:
FDA approves a personalized prostate cancer medicine that boosts a patient's immune cells to recognize and attack the cancer cells. 2011 2011:
Advances in next generation sequencing enable human whole genome sequencing in less than one week for under $2,000. By Daniel Farrell