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Events Leading to World War I
Transcript of Events Leading to World War I
Alliance or Treaty - A formal agreement between two nations
Entente - An informal agreement or alliance between two nations; "an understanding"
Present day: Poland, Denmak, Belgium, Lithuania, Czech Republic, portions of Germany, portions of Russia
1061 - First documented mention
1417 - Hohenzollern line begins to rule Holy Roman Empire
1451 - Berlin made the capital
1701 - Prussia becomes a kingdom
1871 - Unites with other German states to form an empire
1918 - German empire falls, Prussian kingdom destroyed, and Hohenzollerns overthrown ending the Germany monarchy
1. Franco-Prussian War
Prussian Chancellor Otto Von Bismark creates tension over sucessor to Spanish throne in order to irritate and provoke France
July 16, 1870 - France declares war on Prussia
German army gathered more quickly than French army, also larger and better trained, use technology more effectively
Sept. 2, 1870 - French king, Napoleon III, captured
Jan. 28, 1871 - Paris captured
May 10, 1871 - Treaty of Frankfort signed. German empire established with Wilhem I, king of Prussia, as emperor and portions of France, specifically most of Alsace and Lorraine, are surrendered. France forced to pay five billion Francs, which equals $324 billion today
War lasted 9 months, 3 weeks
With creation of German empire, balance of power in Europe disturbed and tension created between Germany and France, who wants Alsace and Lorraine back
2. Wilhem II Begins to Rule German Empire
Reigns June 15, 1888 - Nov. 9, 1918
Familial ties and vendetta with Britain. Claims English doctor ruined his arm at birth and killed father, "One cannot have enough hatred for England."
Dismisses Otto Von Bismark, who created Reinsurance Treaty in 1887
Refuses to renew Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1890, relying on personal relationship with Tsar Alexander III
Russia and France form alliance instead
3. Russo-Japanese War
Feb. 8, 1904 - Sept. 5, 1905
Rivalry over Manchuria and Korea
Japanese offer to compromise refused Russians
Japanese launch surprise attack
Tsar Nicholas II stubbornly convinced Russia can win and nearly all of Russia's Baltic and Pacific fleet destroyed
Political crisis in Russia leads to 1905 Revolution
Russian interest in East turned to Europe and increases tension with Austria-Hungary over respective desire for Balkans
4. Entente Cordiale
German military building up, concern that Germany will try to establish herself as dominant European power
April 8, 1904 - Entente Cordiale signed between Britain and France ending almost thousand years of intermittent conflict
August 31, 1907 - Britain also enters treaty with Russia, who is already in a treaty with France, and the Triple Entente is formed
1904 French Postcard
5. Moroccan Crises
Germany attempts to create tension between France and Britain but Entente Cordiale only strengthened and British hostility towards Germany heightened
1905-1906 - Tangier Crisis (First Moroccan Crisis)
1911 - Agadir Crisis (Second Moroccan Crisis)
6. Bosnian Annexation Crisis (First Balkan Crisis)
7. Italo-Turkish War
8. Balkan Wars (Second Balkan Crisis)
9. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
10. July Ultimatum
Oct. 5, 1908 - Bulgaria declares independence from Ottoman Empire, which was weak
Oct. 6, 1908 - Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was formerly part of Ottoman Empire
Both annexation and independence are considered violations of Treaty of Berlin
Serbia, ethnically and geographically related to both areas, opposes only annexation with Russia's support
Russia's decision to support Serbia is not supported by France or Britain
Serbia is bitter, Russia is humiliated, and tension is increased between Austria-Hungary and Russia
Italy to support Austria-Hungary in exchange for territories but Austria-Hungary not follow through and Italy later influenced by this to break alliance (Triple Alliance) in 1915 with Austria-Hungary
Prince Ferdinand of Bosnia
Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph
Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II
War between Italy and Ottoman Empire, Sept. 29, 1911 - Oct. 18, 1912
War itself not disturb peace but an easy defeat of Ottoman Empire causes some of Balkan states to fight Ottoman Empire in what is known as the First Balkan War
Balkans generally considered to include Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, about half of Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, most of Serbia, and the European part of Turkey.
The First and Second Balkan Wars were two conflicts that took place on the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913 respectively.
First Balkan War - Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece form the Balkan League and together easily defeated the Ottoman Empire, before Italo-Turkish War officially ended, and the Ottoman Empire lost nearly all of its land in Europe.
In dividing the conquered territory, Bulgaria fights with Greece and Serbia over Macedonia but is defeated and surrenders claim to Macedonia
World surprised at success of Balkan League
Second Balkan War - Bulgaria leads surprise attack on Greece and Serbia in retaliation for loss of Macedonia but Bulgaria is defeated again and loses land
Tension still high between Serbia and Austria-Hungary because of Bosnian Annexation Crisis
June 28, 1914 - Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir-presumptive to Austria-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, are assassinated while visting Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Shot by Gavrilo Princip, one of six main assassins, five Serbs and one Bosniak. All would be arrested and punished for their crimes
Purpose of assassination to further radical Young Bosnia's vision of uniting South Slav countries (Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia) together.
July 23, 1914 - Austria-Hungary delivers ultimatum to Serbia
The ultimatum is intentionally contains impossible demands as they want to declare war on Serbia
Serbia refuses to meet the ridiculous demands
Invade Serbia a few days later