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Transcript of Progressive Era
Why the need for reform?
Response to problems of the Gilded Age
Initiative, Referendum and Recall
Muckrakers and Reform Leaders
Impact of Third Parties
Relationship Between Business and Government
1. How did the publication of Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle contribute to a change in the relationship between government and business?
a. Federal troops were mobilized to break strikes by labor unions.
b. Government regulations requiring the inspection of food products were implemented.
c. Congress created a regulatory agency to audit railroads.
d. Laws were enacted that banned private companies from discriminating when hiring.
The Grange Movement
The Populist Party
Unlimited Coinage of Silver
Direct Election of Senators
Term Limits for Presidents
Graduated Income Tax
8 Hour Work Day
The Progressive Party
1912 Bull Moose Party
A way to make state governments accountable to the public.
-Gave Congress power to tax income
-Direct Election of Senators
-Prohibited the sale or manufacture of alcohol
Suffrage for women
: journalists who worked to expose scandal, corruption, and abuse
: wrote The Jungle which exposed the unsanitary practices of the meat packing industry
Major Reform Leaders of the Progressive Era
Susan B. Anthony
Ida B. Wells
Sherman Anti-Trust Acts:
Prevent monopolies from engaging in unfair practices that prevented fair competition.
Interstate Commerce Act
Pure Food and Drug Act
Response to western farmers
regulated railroad industry
created Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
created first federal agency to regulate unfair business practices
Reaction to Sinclair's The Jungle
Regulated the preparation of foods and the sale of medicines
Emergence of Monetary Policy
Federal Reserve Act (1913):
created 12 regional banks under mixed private and public control.
Authorized to issue currency to banks in region
Supported by President Wilson to restore confidence in banking system.
From Gold to Fiat Money:
Fiat Money=paper money
No value except by law or regulation
Goal: expand money supply and stimulate economic activity
I hold that a corporation does ill if it seeks profit in restricting production . . . or seeking to achieve monopoly by illegal . . . treatment of its competitors. . . . If, on the other hand, a corporation seeks profit solely by . . . treating the public . . . and its rivals fairly: then such a corporation is behaving well. It is an instrumentality of civilization operating to promote abundance by cheapening the cost of living so as to improve conditions everywhere throughout the whole community.
—Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography, 1913
The main strategy that President Roosevelt’s administration used to stop the type of business practices criticized in this excerpt was to —
a. establish the Federal Reserve System to regulate the money supply
b. urge the Interstate Commerce Commission to decrease corporate regulations
c. use the Sherman Antitrust Act to ensure competition in industry
d. lobby Congress to loosen restrictions on foreign exports