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by UST students

Tyrone Tan

on 7 May 2015

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God's foreknowledge and predestination
. Why did Jesus have to die for us? Because this drastic problem required a drastic solution; nothing less than the death of God’s Son. And because God’s love would stop at nothing to save his fallen creation.
Examining the Scriptures clearly reveals the details of how we must respond to
God's provision and offer of salvation.
What did Jesus' death accomplish for us? Christ died in our place; he was our substitute. Christ died the death that we deserved, so that we would not have to.
The problem with this view is that the Bible explicitly affirms predestination in some places (Romans 8:28-30, eph. 1:4-5, 11-12)
Predestination does not mean complete predetermination.
Argue that God's foreknowledge is more than just his advance awareness of the future. It is his active choice of some individuals for salvation
God predestined those whom he knew would positively respond when they were offered the gift of salvation in Jesus Christ.
Most Calvinists and Arminians agree about a great deal in key areas.
The Principles and Thoughts of Dr. Jose Rizal
is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language
People can clarify what they believe, and they can be stimulated to think about ultimate questions
The very language we speak uses classifications derived from philosophy
Every institution of society is based on philosophic ideas
Rizal developed a life philosophy of a different nature, a philosophy of a different Catholic practice intermingled with the use of
Truth and Reason.
1. The Church is not the remedy to all evils.
Letter to Father Pastells, April 4, 1893
“ You will tell me that all these evils exist because they have been separated from the church, but when has the latter dominated? What has not had these evils? Perhaps, in the middle ages, when all Europe was a field of Agramente (Battlefields)? In the first three centuries when the Church was in the catacombs groaning like a prisoner and had no power? Then, yes, was peace; but she never had it either; it was not due to her, for she did not decree it."
2.Religious Ceremonies are not efficacious of physical results.
Rizal’s letter to the Malolos Women
“even if individuals makes into scapulars all the rugs of the earth, wears as beads all the woods of the forest, makes into chords the hides of all the animals, and all these put into crisscross and let the priests in the world murmur and sprinkle all the water of the oceans, the evil self cannot be cleansed; without repentance there is no forgiveness.”
3. To believe in miracles is like believing in chance.
Noli Me Tangere
- “He could not believe in miracles, because for him, if he would do so he ought not to believe in God, for miracles is like believing in chance.”
- “What is chance? It is an event which nobody has foreseen absolutely. What is a miracle? A contradiction, an overturn of the natural laws. Lack of foresights and contradiction in the intelligence which directs the machine of the world signify two great imperfections…. I have to believe much in God, for I have lost the belief in man.”

4. The church had a bad effect upon the people because of the friar’s wrong use of authority.
Noli Me Tangere
"Their interest was nothing but the safety of the sacred crops."
5.Rationalistic belief in God cannot form a conception of God as Cruel.
Noli Me Tangere
-“ Philosopher Tasio considered God as only the good.”
-“ Never does He make them tremble.”

- political science and political philosophy are synonymous terms
- field restricted to empiric political reality and more specifically to what a state should be.
1.Service and not exploitation must be the guiding principle.
Noli Me Tangere
“In the art of the government the governor’s interest is not to be considered but only the interest of the country.”
2.The foundation of government is justice and reason.
El Filibusterismo
“Another cornerstone of the foundation of the governments is not prestige for the ruler or terrorism and oppression for the people but justice and reason."
3. The people expect from the government the fundamental functions of the government (liberty must be protected, life must be enhanced, human exploitation must be denounced.)
El Filibusterimo
“Sleep in peace, ill-starred daughter of my hapless fatherland! Bury in the grave the enchantments of youth, faded in their prime! When a people cannot offer its daughters a tranquil home under the protection of sacred liberty, when a man can only leave to his widow blushes, tears to his mother, and slavery to his children, you do well to condemn yourself to perpetual chastity, stifling within you the germ of a future generation accursed! Well for you that you have not to shudder in your grave, hearing the cries of those who groan in darkness, of those who feel that they have wings and yet are fettered, of those who are stifled from lack of liberty! … Happy she who dies lamented, she who leaves in the heart that loves her a pure picture, a sacred remembrance, unspotted by the base passions engendered by the years!”
4.The aim of patriotism is always the good of the country.
El Filibusterismo
“. . . Patriotism can be a crime in the oppressors because then the spoliation will be baptized with a beautiful name: but for the perfection that humanity could have, patriotism will always be a virtue in the oppressed because it will signify for all times love for justice, for liberty , for the dignity, itself, of one’s nation.”
5. Knowledge is the root of the right of revolution.
El Filibusterismo
“Far better it is to leave the people undisturbed even I their own ignorance under oppression than to awaken in them dissatisfaction and hared without sowing the seed of knowledge.”
The culture which each generation purposely gives to those who are to be its successor, in order to qualify them for at least keeping up, if possible, for raising the level of improvement which has been attained.
According to Pestalozzi, education is the unfolding of the natural, hidden faculties of the child.
According to Froebel, he thought that it is the perfecting, advancing, and progressing of man from one stage of development to another. 

During Rizal’s Time
Association of Education with the Church
Sectarian Education
The Mission of Education
1. The aim of education is the development of the people’s mentality.
-”education elevates the country to the highest seat of the immortal dazzling glory"
-"education is the greatest benefactor of human beings"
-"through it, the arts and sciences, which crown men with honor are born“
-"it domesticates barbarous nations and make champions of savages“
-"it is the fountain of crystalline virtue which elevates mortal beings to the height of the gods“
- "through education, the human breast is inflamed with the love of the good and the noble which are the balsam of life“
-"education offers the country immortal splendor and luster" 
Education aims at the making of every citizen a professional man
Simply the reception of fashionable diplomas
Many look at educational institutions as diploma mills
2. The real aim of education is not in QUANTITY but in QUALITY
El Filibusterismo
"...and if they do abound in quantity, perhaps they are deficient in quality. Since the young men can't be prevented from studying, and no other professions are open to us, why let them waste their time and effort? And if the instruction, deficient as it is, does not keep many from becoming lawyers and doctors, if we must finally have them, why not have good ones? After all, even if the sole wish is to make the country a country of farmers and laborers, and condemn in it all intellectual activity, I don't see any evil in enlightening those same farmers and laborers, in giving them at least an education that will aid them in perfecting themselves and in perfecting their work, in placing them in a condition to understand many things of which they are at present ignorant."
Lawyers may be plenty. Doctors may be abound in number. And all of them make trouble with each other by casting invectives and insults on one another.

Human beings are born in ignorance
The first mission of education is to open the possibility of the future to those creatures.
It is education which will elevate their aspirations, guide their actions, and enforce their life.
3. The most commendable effect of education is the enabling of the individual to see many things in an aspect different from what he used to have

See error from from a narrow truth
See truth in many things which seemed erroneous
From narrow-minded fanatic, superstitious ignorant
Broad-minded thinker
5. Education is the foundation of society
Noli Me Tangere
"The school is the foundation of society, the school is the book in which is read the future of the people. Show us the school of a people and we will tell you what kind of people they are.”
Rizal considered education as the prerequisite of any social progress
Indolence of the Filipinos
"Without education and liberty, which are the soil and the sun of man, no reform is possible, no measure can give the result desired."
The obstacle of reform lies in the ignorance of the people.
Reform is the enlightened way to progress
6. Education for freedom
Liberty is the very goal of human progress
Why give liberty to those who do not deserve it?
“I have given proofs as one who most wants liberties for our country and I continue wanting them. But I put as a premise the education of the people so that through education and work, they might have a personality of their own and make themselves worthy of liberties. In my writings I have recommended study and civic virtues, without which redemption is impossible.”
A revolution may be a momentarily triumph
Progress begins with education and it ends in more education
Education is a complex affair
Factors that affect educational systems
-Lack of financial aid
-Lack of inducement or stimulus
The role of motivation in education
-No interest in the subject matter will only produce boredom
8.The centers of learning are the greatest factor in education. They should not be sterile and tyrannical

Indolence of the Filipinos
“The very limited training in the home, the tyrannical and sterile education of the rare centers of learning, that blind subordination of the youth to one of greater age, influence the mind so that a man may not aspire to excel those who preceded him but must merely be content to go along with or march behind them. Stagnation forcibly results from this, and as he who devotes himself merely to copying divests himself of other qualities suited to his own nature, he naturally becomes sterile; hence decadence. Indolence is a corollary derived from the lack of stimulus and of vitality.”
The aim is to produce the well-balanced mentality which appeals to nothing but reason, guided by on thought, that of progress
The school includes the atmosphere in it
The school should not become a place of pain and torment but one of intellectual recreation
It is the nature of youth to be hungry for study and development
9. There is a moral responsibility for an educator
El filibusterismo
“ The friars in general, being the local supervisors of education in the provinces, and the Dominicans in particular, by monopolizing in their hands all the studies of the Filipino youth, have assumed the obligation to its eight millions of inhabitants, to Spain, and to humanity, of which we form a part, of steadily bettering the young plant, morally and physically, of training it toward its happiness, of creating a people honest, prosperous, intelligent, virtuous, noble, and loyal.”
The aim of education should:
-Develop morally and physically the masses
-Guide them to happiness
-Transform them into a prosperous intelligent and noble people

An Educator...
Must have an honorable personality
One who teaches by word of mouth and by examples of deeds
Must have prestige, good name, moral force, certain liberty
*Any social agencies with the lack of desire for instruction, lack of desire for any progress should be stopped by the government

In conclusion,
Under such pitiful condition of education, poor mentality becomes the result.
The educational institution is not just an intellectual recreation but a place of diversion
There is an innate desire in every man to cultivate his intelligence
Becoming aware of an individual’s rights
Education aims at the development of self-consciousness of the individual as well as the consciousness that he is part of a great whole
Education is the foundation of the best interest in the society
Noli me Tangere
"The school is the foundation of society, the school is the book in which is read the future of the people. Show us the school of a people and we will tell you what kind of people they are.”
Rizal considered education as the prerequisite of any social progress
The obstacle of reform lies in the ignorance of the people.
Reform is the enlightened way to progress
Pitiful social conditions existed in the Philippines as late as three centuries after his conquest in Spain, with agriculture, commerce, communications and education languishing under its most backward state. It was because of this social malady that social evils like inferiority complex, cowardice, timidity and false pride pervaded nationally and contributed to the decay of social life. This stimulated and shaped Rizal's life philosophy to be to contain if not eliminate these social ills. Rizal hope of a better Filipino nation through the development of the thoughts and actions of his fellow countrymen.
2. We must focus our motive to the welfare of our country
Speech at the Café Habanero, December 31, 1891
-"The good and welfare of our country is our motive. "
-" The individual should give way to the welfare of the society."

3. Whatever we do today will be the fruit of tomorrow
"Let us do for the generation that must follow us, which will be either our reward or our reproach, all that we would like to have been done for us by our ancestors, perhaps placed by fatality in very dismal circumstances, though full of generous aspirations.... The road is ours as the present is ours, and if it is not given to us to reach the end, we may be sure that by fulfilling our duties, the future will be ours also---the future full of blessings."
5. We must distinguish ourselves as a nation with its own identity
-" Distinguish yourselves then by revealing yourselves in your own character, try to lay the foundations of the Philippine fatherland!"
-" I would stimulate these Philippine studies which are like the nosce te ipsum( know thyself) that gives the true concept of one's self and drives nations to do great things."

The proper thoughts and actions of its people will propel a country towards progress.
While Rizal was fearless in denouncing the evils of the colonial administration of his time, he was no less fearless in pointing out to his countrymen "our own mistakes, our own vices, our supine and culpable acquiescence to these evils.
1. The Filipinos had no sense of national consciousness nor a desire for independence.

Noli Me Tangere
“Our young people think about nothing more than love affairs and pleasure. They spend more time attempting to seduce and dishonor young women than in thinking about their country's welfare. Our women, in order to take care of the house and family of God, forget their own. Our men limit their activities to vice and their heroics to shameful acts. Children wake up in a fog of routine, adolescents live out their best years without ideals, and their elders are sterile, and only serve to corrupt our young people by their example.”

2. The Filipinos must be honorable not despicable
"I would like the Filipino people to become worthy, noble, honorable, for a people who makes itself despicable for its cowardice or vices exposes itself to abuses and vexation."
3. Removing ignorance from our minds will help us become free from vices
El Filibusterismo
"The vices, those powerful children of idleness, escaped from us as soon as serious problems occupied our minds."

4. Vices are widely accepted and tolerated
El Filibusterismo
-"In this world, compliance with vice is rewarded better than the fulfillment of duty. "
-“It’s more immoral that vice has good buildings and learning none. Let’s be practical, gentlemen, and not be carried away by sentiment. In politics there’s nothing worse than sentiment. While from humane considerations we forbid the cultivation of opium in our colonies, we tolerate the smoking of it, and the result is that we do not combat the vice but impoverish ourselves.”
5. The causes of our backwardness and ignorance.
"We believe that the cause of our backwardness and ignorance is the lack of means of education, the vice that afflicts us from the beginning until the end of our careers, if not the lack of stimulus of doubtful future, or the fetters and obstacles that are encountered at every step."
6. There is a price paid for using vice
Noli Me Tangere
-“Vice pays for its own freedom.”
-“A God who chastises our lack of faith, our vices, the little esteem in which we hold dignity and the civic virtues.
We tolerate vice, we make ourselves its accomplices
, at times we applaud it, and it is just, very just that we suffer the consequences, that our children suffer them."
7. Vices and crime will not bring freedom
El Filibusterismo
“The glory of saving a country is not for him who has contributed to its ruin. You have believed that what crime and iniquity have defiled and deformed, another crime and another iniquity can purify and redeem. Wrong! Hate never produces anything but monsters and crime criminals! Love alone realizes wonderful works, virtue alone can save!
No, if our country has ever to be free, it will not be through vice and crime
, it will not be so by corrupting its sons, deceiving some and bribing others, no! Redemption presupposes virtue, virtue sacrifice, and sacrifice love!”
Jose Rizal firmly denounced the misdeeds and vices of our countrymen and promoted national consciousness
1. A Filipino must be a good man and citizen for his country
Letter to Mariano Ponce, London, June 27, 1888
"The principal thing that should be demanded from a Filipino of our generation is not to be a literary man but to be a good man, a good citizen who will keep his country to progress with his head, his heart, and if need be with his arms. "
3. Whatever we do today will be the fruit of tomorrow
"Let us do for the generation that must follow us, which will be either our reward or our reproach, all that we would like to have been done for us by our ancestors, perhaps placed by fatality in very dismal circumstances, though full of generous aspirations.... The road is ours as the present is ours, and if it is not given to us to reach the end, we may be sure that by fulfilling our duties, the future will be ours also---the future full of blessings."
4. Progress through intellectual development
-"The real wealth of country is knowledge, science, and fluency of speech."
because the progress of a country depends upon its richness in culture which is the sum total of its experience.
, because it develops the natural resources of the country and so assures its economic self-sufficiency and national well-being.
-"I am assiduously studying the happenings in our country. I believe that nothing can redeem us except our brains."
5. We must distinguish ourselves as a nation with its own identity
-"Distinguish yourselves then by revealing yourselves in your own character, try to lay the foundations of the Philippine fatherland!"
-"I would stimulate these Philippine studies which are like the nosce te ipsum( know thyself) that gives the true concept of one's self and drives nations to do great things."
The proper thoughts and actions of its people will propel a country towards progress.
7. The home is recognized as a great social force
The home can best serve the interest of enlightenment
- body of principles that guides man in the solution of social problems of his species.
- to correct the one sidedness of the specialized social studies and to endeavor to see social life as a whole.
- it refers to the body of principles that served as his guide in trying to make over his nation.
1. Poverty does not stop development.
The Philippines a Century Hence
"Wealth brings with it refinement and the spirit of preservation, while poverty inspires adventurous ideas, the desire to change things, little attachment to life, and the like"
2. Necessity to live is a strong motive of action.
Noli Me Tangere
"A man may do anything , even break laws, do unwarranted and unsocial things, pretend anything and even accept that his actions are wrong- never complain about them and recognize justice in the charge against them- but only to protest in the end “but it is necessary to live”
3. The consequence of the above nature of society is the creation of false ideal.
Indolence of the Filipinos
“Attending masses, believing what he is told, paying what is demanded of him, paying and forever paying; working, suffering in silence without desiring anything, without aspiring to know or even to understand Spanish, without separating from his carabao as the priests shamelessly say, without protesting against injustice, against any arbitrary actions, against any assault, against any insult; that is, not to have heart, brain or spirit…..”
4. Justice cannot undo any wrong done
El Filibusterismo
"Basilio reasoned out “All the replevin of justice, all the vengeance on earth will not revive a single hair of my mother or renew a smile in the lips of my brother!”
5. Wealth may not be a poison but something to serve the end of a medicine, it must not be valued more than an instrument in social adaptation.
Noli Me Tangere
“Men ought to learn to foster justice, a necessary thing in life so as not to enslave himself to his desires and greeds.”
Tunay ngayong umid yaring dila’t puso
Sinta’y umiilag, tuwa’y lumalayo,
Bayan palibhasa’y lupig at sumuko
Sa kapabayaan ng nagturong puno.

Datapuwa’t muling sisikat ang araw,
Pilit maliligtas ang inaping bayan,
Magbabalik mandin at muling iiral
Ang ngalang Tagalog sa sandaigdigan.

Ibubuhos namin ang dugo’t babaha
Matubos nga lamang ang sa amang lupa
Habang di ninilang panahong tadhana,
Sinta’y tatahimik, iidlip ang nasa.
Balayan, Batangas
Awit -> Kumintang
Dr. Francisco Santiago (Ama ng Kundiman)
Setyembre 12, 1891
Pag-ibig ng binata sa dalaga
Pag-ibig sa tinubuang lupa.
A. The Principles and Thoughts of Dr. Jose Rizal
I. Religious Thoughts
II. Political Thoughts
III. Social and Economic Thoughts
IV. Care for Education and Freedom
V. Progress of the Economy by means of Good Works and Thoughts
VI. Vices and Other Works
VII. Social Movement for the progress of the Nation
VIII. Social Orders of Properties
B. Kundiman (1891) by Jose Rizal
-Jose Rizal was unlike other international heroes who fought for the country with the use of force.
-Rizal wanted reforms for his country. He wanted the Spaniards to treat the Filipinos as their equals.
-Rizal was an intellectual novelist, a social critic, a believer in the power of the pen over the sword.
1. He repudiated the Philippine Revolution at the time.
-"From the beginning, when I had news of what was being planned, I opposed it, fought it, and demonstrated its absolute impossibility."
-"I have given proofs, more than anybody else, of desiring liberties for our country and I still desire them. But I place as a premise the education of the people so that by means of education and of labor they might have a personality of their own and make themselves worthy of liberties."
-"I cannot but condemn and I do condemn this absurd, savage, uprising planned behind my back."
Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo
-Kabesang Tales failed
-Elias was killed
-Simoun died realizing his mistakes in conjuring a revolution that was largely born out of self-interest
Letter to Blumentritt
"A peaceful struggle shall always be a dream, for Spain will never learn the lesson of her South American colonies. Spain cannot learn what England and the United States have learned. But, under the present circumstances, we do not want separation from Spain. All that we ask is greater attention, better education, better government [officials], one or two representatives [in parliament], and greater security for persons and our properties."
2. He ought only autonomy – freedom and not independence, since he believed a country could be independent without being free.
He had always desired democratic rights for the Philippines coupled with the unity of the Filipino people through education. If per chance independence should come, it was because, according to Rizal, the people deserved it and Mother Spain would willingly grant them independence.
Letter to Blumentritt
"If to make my country happy I had to act vilely, I would refuse to do so because I am sure that what is built in sand will collapse sooner or later…"
Letter to M.H. del Pilar
"I am assiduously studying the events in our country. I believe that only intelligence can redeem us, in the material and in the spiritual, I still persist in this belief"
Father Florentino (Noli Me Tangere)
"What is independence if the slaves of today will be the tyrants of tomorrow? "
3. For Rizal, the use of force or freedom by means of a revolt was to be used only as a last resort.
Rizal’s Untitled Last Poem
"(2) On the fields of battle, in the fury of fight,
Others give you their lives without pain or hesitancy,
(3) I die as I see tints on the sky b'gin to show
And at last announce the day, after a gloomy night;"
Letter to Blumentritt
“I assure you that I have no desire to take part in conspiracies which seem to me very premature and risky. But if the government drives us to the brink, that is to say, when no other hope remains but seek our destruction in war, when the Filipinos would prefer to die rather than endure their misery any longer, then I will also become a partisan of violent means. The choice of peace or destruction is in the hands of Spain, because it is a clear fact, known to all, that we are patient, excessively patient and peaceful, mild, unfeeling, etc. But everything ends in this life, there is nothing eternal in the world and that refers also to our patience.”
Conversation with Dr. Pio Valenzuela
-Rizal objected to Bonifacio’s audacious project to plunge in bloody revolution. He was of the sincere belief that it was premature.
1. The people are not ready for a revolution
2. Arms and funds must be first collected before raising the cry of revolution
During the times of Rizal, the sinister shadows of Spain’s decadence darkened the Philippine skies.
The Filipino people were agonized beneath the yoke of Spanish misrule, for they were unfortunate victims of the evils of an unjust, bigoted, and deteriorating colonial power.
Among these evils were as follows:
1. Instability of colonial administration
2. Corrupt officials
3. No Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes
4. Human rights denied to Filipinos
5. No equality before the law
6. Maladministration of Justice
7. Racial Discrimination
8. Frailocracy
9. Forced labor
10. Haciendas owned by the friars
11. The Guardia Civil
Memoirs of a Student in Manila, Chapter 3
"Our mother was unjustly snatched away from us and by whom? By some men who had been our friends and whom we had treated as sacred guests. We learned later that our mother got sick, far from us and at an advanced age. Messrs. Francisco de Marcaida and Manuel Marzan, the most famous lawyers of Manila, defended my mother. She finally succeeded to be acquitted and vindicated in the eyes of her judges, accusers, and even her enemies, but after how long? After two and a half years."
Los Agricultores Filipinos
"The Filipino farmer has to struggle not only against petty tyrants and robbers. Against the first, defense indeed ios permitted, against the latter, not always…"
Tears and Laughter
"A difference does not exist between brown skin and white skin, but it is of spirit and not of skin. "
Rizal’s Dream Society
1. The Philippine archipelago must be united as a Filipino nation: compact, vigorous, and homogeneous.
2. The people must be educated in civic virtues and enlightened in all possible senses of it so that they will struggle for their rights; repudiate slavery and despotism; be equal with the rest of the people of the world; love and help their fellow Filipinos in every trouble, need, violence, and injustice; be industrious in agriculture and commerce, among others; be tolerant with other religious creeds; discard fanaticism and reject both crab and colonial mentality; and be able to actualize one’s potentials for the good not only of oneself but of the Filipino nation as a whole.
3. Schools of all kinds and of sufficient quality and quantity must be established throughout the archipelago primarily as an instrument of enlightenment and secondarily as a means to develop one’s skills for livelihood purposes.
4. There must be a common language of the people and it must be a native language, viz., Tagalog.
Simoun in El filibusterismo ridiculed Basilio and the rest who would want to propagate Spanish as the common language. Simoun said it would never be the language of the people, they would not use it in speaking because it could not express their native thoughts and feelings. Tagalog later became the language of the revolution and was declared the official language in the Biyak-na-Bato and Malolos constitutions.
5. The people must have their liberties. Freedom of speech, assembly, press, redress of grievances, etc. must be guaranteed by the state.
6. Lastly, the Filipinos must not only have the sentiment of nationalism, they must be able to manifest it. In this way, they would have the dignity and patriotism worthy of a people.
Their internationalism must be rooted in their nationalism.
If the Filipino people would have this broad nationalism in their hearts, they cease to be corrupt and would have racial pride. They would value the national interest above individual familial interests.
For Rizal, the Filipino people who has nationalism, racial pride, and enlightenment, or who values his liberties, who does not submit to tyranny, who loves his fellow Filipinos, who value national interests, who refuse to be corrupt, and who does not have a crab and colonial mentality is a truly free man, the one deserving of independence. He is a new man, and for new men, a new social order.
1. Mentality of educated and semi-educated Filipinos is
largely shaped by the English language
and seems therefore colonial in outlook.
2. Corrupt government officials
Milking the Government
Neglecting the Duties
Mulcting the People
patronizing imported products
instead of local products
4. Brain drain

Filipino professionals go to other countries to earn more for their families.
Filipinos pride themselves on their lifelong loyalty to family, schoolmates, compadres, members of the same tribe, residents of the same barangay rather than on loyalty to the nation.
(with regards to Rizal’s Utopian Society)

For the Motherland in war,
For the Motherland in peace,
Will the Filipino keep watch,
He will live until life will cease!

Now the East is glowing with light,
Go! To the field to till the land,
For the labour of man sustains
Fam'ly, home and Motherland.
Hard the land may turn to be,
Scorching the rays of the sun above...
For the country, wife and children
All will be easy to our love.


Go to work with spirits high,
For the wife keeps home faithfully,
Inculcates love in her children
For virtue, knowledge and country.
When the evening brings repose,
On returning joy awaits you,
And if fate is adverse, the wife,
Shall know the task to continue.

H ail! Hail! Praise to labour,
Of the country wealth and vigor!
For it brow serene's exalted,
It's her blood, life, and ardor.
If some youth would show his love
Labor his faith will sustain :
Only a man who struggles and works
Will his offspring know to maintain.

Teach, us ye the laborious work
To pursue your footsteps we wish,
For tomorrow when country calls us
We may be able your task to finish.
And on seeing us the elders will say:
'Look, they're worthy 'f their sires of yore!'
Incense does not honor the dead
As does a son with glory and valor.
Hymn to Labor
4. Education enables individuals to become aware of their rights
Education aims at the development of self-consciousness of the individual as well as the consciousness that he is part of a great whole
Full transcript