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McBride Social 30-1 - Student guide to source interpretation (assignment one)

Some tools to unpack sources and find ideological perspectives
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Russ McBride

on 15 September 2018

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Transcript of McBride Social 30-1 - Student guide to source interpretation (assignment one)

Social Studies 30-1
Written Response
Examine all three sources on pages 2 through 4 and complete the assignment on page 5.
How to respond to a source analysis question:
When the people fear the government there is tyranny, when the government fears the people there is liberty.
sample sources:
Responding to the sources
Step One: What is on the page?
Step Two: What are the key related themes, terms / principles of liberalism?

For a list of terms refer to the conceptual summary of Social 30-1.
Step Three: Does this source reflect or reject liberalism? How can we tell? Consider the intended audiance and what perspective on the issue the presenter of the source wants the audiance to take, what is intended appeal (emotional, logical, ethical). Also consider the tone of the source, is it sarcastic, cynical, satirical, optimistic, humourous, informative, ... is it from a liberal, conservative, moderate, ... artist or presenter
Political
Reflect Principles of Liberalism

Individual rights and freedoms
Rule of Law
Political equality
Civil liberties
Citizen participation

Reflection of these principles is associated with democracy.
Reject Principle of Liberalism

State control
Law and order
State security
Service to the community

Partial or temporary removal or rejection is associated with illiberal democracy

Total or permanent rejection is associated with totalitarian dictatorship
For example source one is a political cartoon that depicts a presumably Muslim woman covered head to toe in a burqa.
For example for source three the topic or theme is political liberalism. More specifically the key terms are civil liberties and individual rights and freedoms.
The photograph would be accompanied with some sort of source. In this case we have the Westboro Church protesting (civil liberty) at the funeral of Tim McLean (who was beheaded on a Greyhound July 30, 2008
So how can you discover the ideological perspective intended? Well being that this protest was at a funeral, and that the protestors are using their civil liberty to proclaim to the victim that "he is going to Hell" it isn't too much of a leap to assume that somebody might use this photograph to defend the perspective that . . .
We need limits to civil liberties. Therefore the source rejects liberalism, or at least initiates a discussion about the whether or not liberties are absolute.
Step four: Other related ideas.

This is a chance to attach other ideas to the source. In this case the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is not directly shown but is a very relevant addition.
One could also add (only to highlight the intended perspective of the source, not to overpower it) related philosophers / supporters.
Next step?

Repeat steps one to four for each source.
Step Five:

Relationships
Now that have analyzed each source individually, the next step is to look at them as a set.
The three sources should have one or more relationships in common. You need to identify these relationships. One simple way to begin is to see them as a set, three possible answers to one question - so what's the question? It could be a "to what extent " discussion.
Once you identify the relationships we need to explain them.
For example:

These three souces discuss political liberalism and explore the relationship between the government and citizens.
Final step:

Now that we know the general theme of the sources, do the ideological perspectives agree?

How might the presenter of the sources respond to each other? (refutes, supports ...)

Is there a cause and effect relationship?
Things to remember:

The marking criteria -

Four marks for the analysis of each source (12)
Six marks for the relationship section (6)
Two marks for communication (2)
For samples of work please see:

http://www.education.alberta.ca/admin/testing/diplomaexams/examples.aspx
Twenty percent of the diploma exam is one assignment. Do you know how to complete it?
if it is a cartoon is there a caricature, which is an exaggeration or distortion of a person or object with the goal of providing a comic effect.
also consider symbols and context
Most often, you can look around the immediate vicinity of the primary focus to find what is being described. This is usually an allusion, or an indirect reference to a past or current event that isn't explicitly made clear within the cartoon.
What section of the population is the publication geared towards, and in what country and locality? A political cartoon will be created with consideration to the experiences and assumptions of the intended audience.
checklist: your answer should have all of the following, does not have to be in this order

theme - political? economic? historical?
subtheme / topic - this is the more specific topic - Great Depression, New Deal
key related vocab
what's on the page, symbols, (what do you see)
perspective of the source - tone of the source
ideological perspective of presenter - liberal, conservative, moderate, how can we tell, how might it be presented differently if the source was from the opposite perspective?
who might agree with the presenter, historical figures, philosophers, contemporary leaders...
what inspired the presenter to present the source (is it an allusion, what event inspired the source)
intended audiance,
indended response, rejection or reflection of liberalism (and be specific on which principles)

checklist for relationships:
similar or different . . .
inspirations
intended audiances
intended responses
ideological perspectives of presenters
tone
context
supporters

also consider:
could one source be used to support or refute another
is there a cause and effect relationship

checklist for relationships:
similar or different . . .
inspirations, context
tone, medium
intended audiances, intended responses
ideological perspectives of presenters, supporters
Freedom has enslaved many of our socialist brothers. Distracted by the placebo of democracy, capitalism is the terminal disease used by the few to exploit the many. It is therefore our responsibility to resist America, and her clones, and liberate the hearts and minds of our imprisoned brothers from the relentless tide of western imperialism. This is a call to arms. If we fail, the world will become an empty shell, all of its resources used in the blind pursuit of individual glory, killing the collective.
Identify the issue, problem, challenge, the source is a response to ....

the paradoxical enslavement caused by freedom
this is Orwellian speak ... "freedom is slavery" ...
the term "slave" has a negative conaition, people do not willingly desire to become a slave
and this a significant issue because the victims of said enslavement are our brothers, and we have a familiar responsibility to protect the intregity of our brothers.
If our brothers fall, we might be next ... first they came for them, and nobody said anything, when they come for me ...








How big is the issue?
unfortunately this is not an isolated incident
"the relentless tide of western imperialism"
this phrases links and parraells what is happening today with the foreign policy of imperialism ... the same policy that will forever be linked with the raping and looting of the New World, Africa, and Asia. Imperialism led to the 19th century genocide of the Congonesse people, a genocide commited in the name of the selfish pursuit of profit from rubber.

Is inaction an option? Can we be neutral in this conflict?
"if we fail, the world will become an empty shell, all of its resources used in the blind pursuit of individual glory, killing the collective"
So no. The earth itself as at risk. The ecological impact of individualism is not sustainable, nonsensical, and can only be supported by those "blind" to the impact of their actions. Unfortionately there is a lot of evidence to support this claim. Climate change, species extinction, and nonrenewable resource exhaustion being the most alarming
and there's more to the cost of inaction
"if we fail the world will become an empty shell"
the cost isn't just physical, there is a moral cost of the enslavement. We will be left empty shells, empty of morality
and we will become like others, "clones" of America
again, paradoxically, we stand to lose our individualism if we take the "placebo", a clone is not a desirable identity, it's someone else's identity.
and don't forget, the the "freedom" is linked with being a terminal disease ... so we better act to save our lives
so how has this been possible?
Democracy is a placebo, a false cure, we believe that it is a medicine to help us, but the reality it is only serving to distract us.
Elections are not really free, choice is an illusion, the political parties, platforms, and candidates have become puppets of corporate interests. Elections give the exploited a false sense of inclusion
The real game is capitalism, and sadly our hearts and minds have been lost to the reality that we are being controlled, exploited, for another's gain
It is time to awake from the Matrix
Who might agree with this perspective?
Chomsky
Marx
Rousseau
What would be their prescribed solutions?
Marx
the role of the revolutionary, break off the chains of oppression, unite with the workers of the world, protect our common interest, end the exploitation due to individual incentive.
Rousseau: Private property is the source of jealousy and therefore a divisive force in society that corrupts our natural, noble, selves. The solution is simple ... reject economic individualism and embrace public property
Chomsky: Ask Max

As it was in pre-revolutionary France, the power is in the awaken hearts and minds of the masses, the ninety nine percent, who must act individually and collectively to destroy the institutions of this "new" old regime, change the economic, socio-political game from exploitation and competition to one of compassion and cooperation. How do you do this? Like Gandhi fighting the might of the British Empire, "be the change you want to see in the world"










has this ever worked?
1930s Catalonia might be a good starting place
will there be resistance?
of course, there are hearts and minds dedicated to exploitation
so how do you overcome them?
some (Marx) might turn to violence, others (Gandhi) might turn towards forcing a moral paradigm shift by exposing the inhumanity
so in summary this is a rejection of
smith
invisible hand
lack of government regulation to protect the interests of the many from the abuses of the powerful few
In the least the government needs to ....
not be a puppet to the interests of the few
create legislation to protect consumers, workers
limit the corrupting influence of capitalism
REVIEW the steps ...
• Identify the context.
Consider the source as a reaction to something, in a chain in a sequence
what happened before the source to inspire the perspective shown
Related the context of the source to key course vocabulary and the evolution of ideas
Does it support, challenge or reject …. ?

• Identify the theme(s) of the source
Often the theme may be seen as a problem or issue that society is facing
Sometimes the theme is related to a “to what extent question” or the evolution of a major related issue
Explore why the issue is a significant issue that society faces.

• Identify and interpret the perspective found in the source

“unpack” key clues that help to announce the perspective the source is presenting. The perspective can often be seen as a solution to the problem or issue shown above.

Look for key details in the source

• If it is a text based source you will have to examine word use and key phrases.
• If the source is a photo or a cartoon you will need to examine what is in the picture and use literary devices like symbolism, exaggeration, personification, metaphors, irony, juxtaposition, characterization, allegory,
Through the above detail you should find the tone of the source.
You should also find the intended response to the issue and who should respond (the audience for the source)

• Division of society
Who might agree with the source?
What supporting arguments and evidence might they add?
Who might disagree with the source?
What bias, limitations, and assumptions might they expose?


Application of
the steps ...
Step I: Interpret each source, explain the ideological perspective(s) presented in each source, and discuss the links between the principles of liberalism and each source
The state determines all that is morally, socially, and materially valuable. Therefore, it is the right and obligation to monopolize all power and authority, controlling all aspects of society. The state functions as the protector of citizens, providing them with identities, welfare, and security in return for loyalty and obedience. No rights or freedoms should exist apart from service to the state. Individuals and groups constitute one unified, integral whole working towards common goals. Thus, any notion that liberalism functions for the greater good is naïve.

• Elaborate on key phrases of the source by adding a discussion of philosophy, related concepts and an application of evidence
The state
As opposed to ???
The individual, families, the Church
The state determines all that is morally valuable
For example in NAZI Germany indoctrination was used to alter the population’s morals concerning euthanasia and genocide.
The state determines all that is socially valuable
For example in Brave New World the state used breeding and conditioning programs to separate the people into classes. Once separated, the state even controlled the nature of social interactions by establishing social norms like a lack of true intimacy.

The state determines all that is materially valuable
Again in Nazi Germany, the state created the VW as a way to motivate the workers to focus on the potential reward of future consumerism.
“it is the right” . The ironic and juxtaposed use of “it is the right” seems to imply that the source is in response to a discussion about “rights”. Perhaps it serves as a response to a pro-liberalism rant about individual “rights” and freedoms.
The term “obligation” further highlights the absolute stance of the source. Obligations are not negotiable, one cannot argue against what is obligated. Former US President Abraham Lincoln is remembered as being obligated to “tell the truth”. This characteristic defined his presidency and his legacy.
How absolute is the position? It furthers the argument by clearly stating “ to monopolize all power and authority”. This is a clear rejection of the core liberal principle of accountability of government and seems to reflect a “leviathanesque” relationship.

This is not exclusively a political or an economic source as the voice quoted then claims the state should “control all aspects of society”. This control seems to support the collective principle of the state putting the common good ahead of individual interests. Although this practice had some short term success as Stalin used central planning to rapidly industrialize and save his USSR from his own prophesized “crushing” from the other great powers, in the long term the absolute nature of totalitarianism soured in the hearts and minds of the Soviet citizens. In NAZI Germany the state introduced Gleichschaltung and achieved, at least until their defeat during WWII, complete control and coordination over all aspects of society, from the economy to the media, culture and education. This idea of having unity towards state goals is furthered in the second last sentence where it is proclaimed that “individuals and groups constitute one unified, integral whole working towards common goals”.
The source seems to attempt to justify their socio-economic and political monopoly by proclaiming itself the “protector of citizens”, a common propaganda tactic of authoritarians. In fact the idea of being a “protector” indirectly suggests the presence of an enemy or enemies of the state, perhaps scapegoats like the German Jews that are used to justify the overall need for adherence to collective (state enforced) norms.
This idea of adherence to collective norms is furthered by the claim that the state will provide the citizens with identities. Again objectors might see parallels with imprisoned dystopias like Huxley’s Brave New World where the state did in fact engineer your life at a genetic level before birth, and a social level after. This sentiment was championed in Italy during the 20th century when fascist dictator Mussolini claimed that there should be “all within the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state”.
The continual bargaining of the source is returned to as the source suggests that in return for “loyalty and service” (submission) to the state, the state will provide for the “welfare and security” of the people. This might be meant to persuade the audience that there will be benefits to this relationship. Perhaps the state has either created or responded to an immediate threat to national security, similar to Hitler’s use of the Reichstag Fire to proclaim the need for Emergency Decrees. The use of the term welfare is interesting because in it is the essence of the main argument for economic collectivism, that there will be some economic equality. This may include a generous, and even enviable, network of universal healthcare and education. But for a liberal like Milton Friedman or Ayn Rand the cost is clear. If we allow the state to interfere in our economic lives, our liberty will be lost. But it appears that this state is taking a “Big Brother” like approach suggesting that freedom is slavery, and therefore when we submit to the state, and only when we submit to the state, will we be free.
The true danger of this source is in the phrase “loyalty and obedience”. It truly conjures images an unaccountable tyranny, capable of the most heinous crimes. It was loyalty and obedience that poisoned the hearts and minds of average German citizens and convinced them that being a gas chamber attendant was an acceptable, moral, and maybe even honourable, role.
Again the absolute and unbending nature of the source is announced when it claims that “no rights should exist”. More than just serving as an ideological counter revolution against the renaissance, this in fact eliminates any possibility of individualism within the state. The message remains unchanged, that freedom is only possible within the state. When one applies this logic to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms we can truly illustrate the dystopian nature of this prescribed state. No freedoms of movement, association, speech, religion … apart from the state. Under this scenario all citizens would be in a metaphorical nationwide prison. Perhaps the closest thing we have in 2017 would be the failed and nightmarish state of North Korea.
The absolute attack on liberalism is summarized and concluded when the statement suggests that it would be naïve to consider liberalism as a path to the greater good. Although many socialists would agree, more moderate socialists would be alarmed by the unbending and extreme form of authoritarianism that this source prescribes.
With cartoons you have a number of tools to find and interpret the perspective

Identify the visual elements. Take a look at the cartoon as a whole and make a note of the drawings you see. Make a list of the visual elements, including people, animals, other objects, and the setting or background.
Identify the main focus of the cartoon. Find the portion of the cartoon that most stands out. Most often, this will be a caricature, which is an exaggeration or distortion of a person or object with the goal of providing a comic effect.
Understand labeling. The cartoonist may label certain elements in the cartoon. This will help identify the different pictures and ideas in the cartoon. Labels are often paired with symbols. Look at labels. Some people or objects might be labeled to identify them. Often these labels are placed so that the viewer will know what a particular object represents.
Source two is a political cartoon that has in the foreground two “B” citizens appearing unsettled as they sit on a bench, surrounded by various, and sometimes intimidating, symbols of state control. The categorization and division of the citizens seems to present a rigid society, similar to Apartheid South Africa or segregation era America. The main difference might be that even those B citizens that “enjoy” special privileges seem to be caught in an outlandish relationship with their government.
Look at text bubbles. People in a cartoon will often speak to each other in the cartoon. Alternately, they will “think” something. Read what people are saying in the cartoon.
The despair of the citizens is captured as one turns to the other and rations, “Well … at least we don’t have to worry about anarchy anymore”. This may offer some insight into the events preceding the cartoon. Perhaps the citizens, facing the threat of anarchy, requested the state to seize control. The citizens may be categorized based on their potential threat to state security. Under this scenario it would be the will of the people to sacrifice the principles of individualism in order to enjoy the comfort of collectivism. This is, as Franklin suggested, a fallacy as those who in moments of weakness sacrifice freedom, even temporarily for security, deserve neither.

Pay attention to how the visual elements interact with each other. Think about how different symbols are drawn in relation to each other. If there is a person, where is he standing? What is he doing? Is he talking to another person? Is he interacting with an object? Look for juxtaposition.
Understand analogy. The cartoonist may compare two things that are not alike. This technique may be used if there is a complex topic or idea that is difficult to understand. By comparing it to something else, it can be easier for the reader to understand.
The cartoon juxtaposes the familiar, with the non-familiar. In the foreground we have two citizens sitting on a bench. This should be relatable. But surrounding the citizens are various symbols of state oppression.

Recognize exaggeration. Artists will often exaggerate or distort certain elements of the drawing to make a point. Some commonly exaggerated pictures might include a character’s facial features or other parts of the body. Take note of distortion or exaggeration. Look at the visual elements and pay attention to how they are drawn. People or animals may be exaggerated or distorted in some way

Understand symbolism. An artist may use symbols as placeholders for ideas or themes. Look for widely recognized symbols. Some metaphors are commonly used by political cartoonists
When we consider the totality of the instruments of state control, cameras, curfews, segregation, and what appears to be a completely unnecessary and excessive display of police might it also becomes likely that this scenario may not represent the will of the people, but rather the citizens words may simply be his parroting of state propaganda used to justify their authoritarianism in light of a fictional threat from anarchist scapegoats. This would parallel Hitler’s use of the Jews, Stalin’s fear of the Kulaks, and “Big Brother’s” perpetual war with one of the other two global superpowers.
Look at minor details. Often the cartoon will have minor details that contribute to the humor or the point of the cartoon. Pictorial symbols convey minor themes or ideas. These are usually found in the background or on the sides of the cartoon.
The government’s justification for the law and order is shown as the CCTV is labelled “for your protection”. The rejection and despair of the citizens is furthered as they are shown either without faces and individuality, or looking hopelessly at the ground. Their lack of individual identity is similar to those interned in death camps by the Nazi Germans. There too the inmates learnt that they should avoid making eye contact with the representatives of the state, as that could be grounds for their murder.

Look for allusions to contemporary events or trends. Some cartoons will link their subject matter to a current event or trend that is widely recognized
The most concerning element of this cartoon is that the context isn’t Nazi Germany, but could be America of the future. During the modern era defined by the global war against Islamic Jihadism, many liberal states have abandoned some of their founding principles in order to gain greater security. In this way the cartoon serves as Orwell’s 1984 did, as a warning that totalitarianism could infect even the most liberal of nations. The issue of privacy from the intrusive nature of government is clearly symbolized with the excessive police presence. It is worth noting that many have seen the USA PATRIOT ACT as a first step in the USA towards illiberalism, and now under President Trump many are suggesting that democracy in the USA could be replaced under the threat of national security.
Look for stereotypes. Some of the visual elements may be stereotypes. This might help the reader identify the visual elements more clearly. These can also call attention to the stereotypes as offensive and outdated.
The hard power displayed by the state seems stereotypical as most governments are more sophisticated at creating the control shown in the cartoon by through the more deceptive soft power of indoctrination. If you control their hearts and minds, perhaps by creating a cult of personality, or more likely the illusion of participation and choice, then the tanks are no longer needed.

Identify the people involved in the issue. To give you more reference points, find out the names and roles of the people involved with the issue or event.
Use of Satire the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues
Recognize irony. An artist may use irony by using words or pictures to describe the opposite of what is, such as what should be. This is usually done with humorous effect.
Identify the perspectives of this issue. The issue at hand will have different perspectives. The characters within the cartoon may or may not have contrasting opinions. You can also add others (philosophers, world leaders) to the discussion.
The characters seem to be either so intimidated or so indoctrinated by the state that their position remains mostly hidden. Their despair and the ironic comment about anarchy seems to suggest that they are aware of, but powerless to change, their dystopia.

Determine the artist’s perspective. The artist will have a particular viewpoint about the issue in the cartoon. Once you’ve pinpointed the issue and the possible perspectives on this issue, you can figure out what the artist is arguing for.
The perspective of the cartoonist is revealed when one considers, “would I want to live in the state as it has been illustrated” The cartoon emphasizes the oppression and hopelessness and therefore the cartoonist would value more individualism.

Determine the audience. A political cartoon is created with consideration to the experiences and assumptions of the intended audience. What section of the population is the publication geared towards?
If we accept the possibility that this represents an Orwellianesque warning, then the audience may be citizens that currently live in a liberal state but seem to be oblivious, or even apathetic, to the vulnerability of the state becoming a façade.
Identify adjectives that describe the emotions in the cartoon. The words and pictures together will produce certain meanings. Many political cartoons are intended to portray some emotions. What emotions are present in your cartoon?
Identify the intended response of the audience
This cartoon could be used to promote grass roots active citizenship in an attempt to maintain the legitimacy of liberal states.

Source III
With cartoons you have a number of tools to find and interpret the perspective

Identify the visual elements. Take a look at the cartoon as a whole and make a note of the drawings you see. Make a list of the visual elements, including people, animals, other objects, and the setting or background.
Identify the main focus of the cartoon. Find the portion of the cartoon that most stands out. Most often, this will be a caricature, which is an exaggeration or distortion of a person or object with the goal of providing a comic effect.

Understand labeling. The cartoonist may label certain elements in the cartoon. This will help identify the different pictures and ideas in the cartoon. Labels are often paired with symbols. Look at labels. Some people or objects might be labeled to identify them. Often these labels are placed so that the viewer will know what a particular object represents.

Source three is a political cartoon that includes four smaller frames and one dominant concluding frame. The smaller frames suggest issues that citizens might have with their government, while the larger one suggests a solution.

Look at text bubbles. People in a cartoon will often speak to each other in the cartoon. Alternately, they will “think” something. Read what people are saying in the cartoon.
Included in the issues are relatable concerns like taxes, government, and regulations. The suggestion is that if one hates these things, and loves guns that they should move to Somalia.
Pay attention to how the visual elements interact with each other. Think about how different symbols are drawn in relation to each other. If there is a person, where is he standing? What is he doing? Is he talking to another person? Is he interacting with an object? Look for juxtaposition.
The final frame has the American citizen seemingly enjoying his transplanting to the “freedom” of Somalia. As we anticipate what will happen immediately following the cartoon, it appears that the ignorant simplicity of his anti-government stance has led him to an extremely dangerous, lawless, and deadly situation.

Understand analogy. The cartoonist may compare two things that are not alike. This technique may be used if there is a complex topic or idea that is difficult to understand. By comparing it to something else, it can be easier for the reader to understand.
Recognize exaggeration. Artists will often exaggerate or distort certain elements of the drawing to make a point. Some commonly exaggerated pictures might include a character’s facial features or other parts of the body. Take note of distortion or exaggeration. Look at the visual elements and pay attention to how they are drawn. People or animals may be exaggerated or distorted in some way
To some viewers the arsenal may seem exaggerated, but Somalia is perhaps the world’s most emblematic failed state. It has been without a functional central government since 1991 when the current civil war began. As a result, an entire generation has lacked key public goods and services that the American citizen clearly takes for granted.

Understand symbolism. An artist may use symbols as placeholders for ideas or themes. Look for widely recognized symbols. Some metaphors are commonly used by political cartoonists
Mostly hidden from the viewer is a flag flying in the background. The flag is the Jolly Roger, an infamous and sometimes romanticized symbol of piracy. Although Hollywood, and our adolescence in general, may attempt to glorify the freedom of the “pirates life”, the harsh reality is a life of kidnap, murder and mutilation.

Look at minor details. Often the cartoon will have minor details that contribute to the humor or the point of the cartoon. Pictorial symbols convey minor themes or ideas. These are usually found in the background or on the sides of the cartoon.
By emphasizing the excessive and dangerous presence of weapons in a state without the security of a central government, the cartoonist has used comedy to show the fallacy of this logic.
Look for allusions to contemporary events or trends. Some cartoons will link their subject matter to a current event or trend that is widely recognized
Identify the issue that the cartoon is referencing. Political cartoons typically comment on a certain event or issue. Connect this issue to the issues discussed in the class and the principles of the thematic focus

This cartoon isn’t really about Somalia or even piracy, it is about finding the delicate balance between individual freedom of citizens and the security that a central government can provide. The cartoon is meant to help establish to what extent that the principles of individualism should be the foundation of a state. For example, even though individuals may be rational and entitled to make decisions this shows the potential for irrational choices and the need for someone, or something, beyond the individual to care for his personal well-being.

Look for stereotypes. Some of the visual elements may be stereotypes. This might help the reader identify the visual elements more clearly. These can also call attention to the stereotypes as offensive and outdated.

Identify the people involved in the issue. To give you more reference points, find out the names and roles of the people involved with the issue or event.

Use of Satire the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues
Recognize irony. An artist may use irony by using words or pictures to describe the opposite of what is, such as what should be. This is usually done with humorous effect.
Identify the perspectives of this issue. The issue at hand will have different perspectives. The characters within the cartoon may or may not have contrasting opinions. You can also add others (philosophers, world leaders) to the discussion.
Within this debate you have anarchists, like the American citizen who switches his allegiance from the “US t-shirt” to an “anarchy” one. The cartoonist seems to be suggesting that this point of view is far too simple as it ignores the important role that the government plays in keeping the citizens safe. Even minarchists and libertarians are being exposed as the cartoonist is questioning the logic of gun ownership.

Determine the artist’s perspective. The artist will have a particular viewpoint about the issue in the cartoon. Once you’ve pinpointed the issue and the possible perspectives on this issue, you can figure out what the artist is arguing for.
Determine the audience. A political cartoon is created with consideration to the experiences and assumptions of the intended audience. What section of the population is the publication geared towards?
Identify adjectives that describe the emotions in the cartoon. The words and pictures together will produce certain meanings. Many political cartoons are intended to portray some emotions. What emotions are present in your cartoon?
Identify the intended response of the audience
This cartoon could be presented to anti-governmental gun enthusiasts as a reminder that the state that they think that they want may be less than ideal.

STEP II: Identify and explain one or more of the relationships that exist among the three sources
“to what extent question”.
There are many possibilities but one would be
To what extent can we find a healthy balance between individualism (freedom) and collectivism (control).

Overarching theme(s). In Social 30-1 there are some predictable themes. This time the theme includes
the roles, and possibility the need for a state
the role of citizens
the nature of citizens … can they exist independent of the state
the nature of government. Can it be a benevolent entity, or even under certain circumstances (need to provide security) will it become tyrannical?
the fear or anarchy
who(m) should have power (and weapons) in society. Individuals or the state

Cause and effect
What could begin as a justifiable fear of anarchy, as shown in source three, may lead to the people expressing their will for more security. Corrupted by the new imbalance between state power and individual liberty the government may first appear to look like the cartoon from source two and then finally simply become the absolute totalitarian state from source one.

Evolution of liberalism.
Rather than representing an evolution of liberalism this chronological understanding of the sources would represent devolution of liberalism towards collectivism.

Responses to each other
With regards to these issues how would the voice quoted in source one respond to
Cartoonist from source two
The cartoonist seems to be overemphasizing the role of force and intimidation and ignores the true liberating quality of content that the individuals would feel cloaked by and with the government.
Cartoonist from source three
The cartoonist seems to understand the need for government, and the simplicity of the anarchist perspective. The reality is that the danger exposed in source three, including the concept of people suffering disillusions, is still present as long as there is any individualism in society.

How would the cartoonist from source two respond to
Cartoonist from source three
might agree that an anarchist state is not ideal, but there remains room for at least a discussion between the two cartoonists as to what the role of government should be. The cartoonist from two seems to highlight the fall of collectivism due to our violent nature, while the cartoonist in source three seems to highlight the fall of individualism due to our violent nature.

The cartoonist in source two
is exposing the tragedy of what is a more liberal state than the one prescribed in source one. Therefore it is safe to assume the one prescribed in one would be a worst case scenario for the cartoonist.

How would the cartoonist from source three respond to
Cartoonist from source two
Shown above
The voice in source one
The cartoonist might be alarmed that too much government also endangers the security of individuals. Suggesting that instead of extreme individualism (anarchy) or extreme collectivism (authoritarianism) people should pursue a harmonious balance.

Practice for source interpretations associated with written response assignment one

Source:
Man cannot be free as long as our basic needs go unmet, and nothing is more basic than food itself. In the centuries old class struggle between the privileged few and the exploited many, food has long been their key instrument of control. As fewer landowners control more of this most vital resource they can purposely limit supply and in this “free” market that means prices beyond our impoverished hands. These orchestrated food shortages have been used as a weapon to control the plebians of Ancient Rome and to punish the Third Estate of pre-revolutionary France.

Things are not better for those of us that might be working for these large landowners. No longer are we referred to as their slaves, but we remain in their eyes simple beasts of burden. Of all the animals kept by the landowners, the labourer is the most oppressed, worst nourished and most brutally treated. We shall never be free until we can look out our windows onto our shared lands and see our brothers harvesting our food nearby.

Themes / context: Man’s quest for freedom
Purpose of life? To be free or to be controlled.
Related roles of government and / or individuals to achieve said goal.
Connections to liberalism
Deliberate paradox that in order to be free (a principle most commonly associated with individualism) we need some security (economic collectivism in the shape of cooperation, common good, collective responsibility and public property)
To some extend this mirrors the evolutionary drift of liberalism away from the self reliance and rugged individualism of 19th century classical liberalism towards modern liberalism where freedom is now possible not in absence from, but rather through government.
This drift was seen as a response to the suffering of the Great Depression and the corresponding Keynesian inspired solutions
Path to freedom
Cannot be free if our economic needs are unmet
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Related ideas
Gandhi - “poverty is the worst form of violence”

Obstacles in the quest (problem that the source intends to solve)
Nature of mankind / Class warfare - Mankind is competitive and exploitative and this is at the heart of the class warfare that is blocking the masses from achieving real freedom
Supporters
Marx -this should be obvious … even Keynesian economics and Modern Liberalism will not be enough as the government is still compromised by the special interests of the elite
Rousseau who argued that private property caused conflict in society and proposed embracing public property
Hobbes who saw that if left uncontrolled by a strong central power mankind would be at a natural state of war and life would be “nasty, brutish and short”
Inspiration (sometimes as an allusion) and or evidence that inspired the source:
Perhaps in response to a famine. References planned famines (shortages) in history

Solution (ideological perspective of the source): that last line
Collectivization (implied that it follows a violent left wing mass led Marxist revolution)
Reference specific phrases and words to unpack the perspective and perhaps discover things like types of appeal and to whom is it addressed
Use of “our” to establish an emotional connection to the audience (targeted segment of the population who is meant to embrace the perspective and carry out the intended solution) of commoners and suggest a shared bond, a shared struggle. This is continued as it will then use “they” in reference to the wealthy landowners.
Other words are used to elicit other emotions and establish a tone that highlights a sense of urgency and inspire action (violent Marxist revolution). For example, struggle, privileged, exploitative
The use of the term “free” furthers the perspective that the commoners are being manipulated into believing that they are already free
Many sources may also use descriptive or literary devices to further their perspective.
Labourers are compared (in an unflattering way) to the other animals in the care of the wealthy landowners.
Assumptions:
That following a Marxist style revolution that the food will be shared, that the competitive and exploitative nature of mankind will not shape the collective state and that our hearts and minds can be changed
Related limitation:
In the USSR after the revolution there was a state created famine as Stalin used the Kulak wheat to fuel his rapid modernization and also punished the Kulaks for resisting him.
In China, following the Maoist revolution there was mass hunger due to poor management by the state.


Contemporary relevance / significance:
Food shortages remain today in nations like Venezuela. We have seen global price inflation of food, and although we create enough food to feed all of the world’s people due to global disparity and waste by many who over consume globally millions still die every year (about nine million per year) from preventable cases of starvation.
Corporations can often control and manipulate food supplies and can even overpower governments (banana republics)
This is also reflective of the global divide between the one percent and the rest of us
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