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PHIL 221

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Ahmed Khalifa

on 9 November 2012

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Transcript of PHIL 221

Presented By: Ahmed Khalifa
Supervised By: Dr. Alessandro Topa Toulmin Model of Argumentation Outline - Review of C, D, W Model
- Role of Preliminary Arguments
- Distinction between Data and Warrant
- Challenging the Warrant Review of C, D, W model Notion of Challenger
"Let it be supposed that we make an assertion, and commit ourselves thereby to the claim which any assertion necessarily involves. If this claim is challenged, we must be able to establish it-that is, make it good, and show that it was justifiable." - Toulmin Review of C, D, W model Claim Role of Preliminary Arguments "Of course we may not get the challenger even to agree about the correctness of these facts, and in that case we have to clear his objection out of the way by a preliminary argument: only when this prior issue or 'lemma', as geometers would call it, has been dealt with, are we in a position to return to the original argument." - Toulmin

- Correctness of Data Distinction between
Data and Warrant Data Why? So What? Warrant Challenging the Warrant Force of the Warrant

Specific Doubt

General Doubt about the Applicability of the Warrant Data
- Facts
- Phenomena

- Piece of information to support the claim
- Special case Warrant
- Laws
- Independent of
- to Authorize a step in argumentation
- General rule D C Since W the presentation of another argument that concludes that the data used in the original argument is correct. Definition: Qualifiers (Q) Strength conferred by the Warrant on this step D Q C Since W Rebuttal - Circumstances in which the general authority of the warrant would have to be set aside
- Exceptions Backing the Warrant Different kinds of backing according to different fields
Ex: Moral, Mathematical and Psychological D Q C Since W Unless R D Q C Since W Unless R On Account of B
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