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Chapter 11: Gender and Sexuality

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on 29 October 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 11: Gender and Sexuality

Chapter 11: Gender and Sexuality
Feminism
Sexuality
Sex and Gender: Not the Same
SEX:
the biological distinction between men and women

Sex is on a continuum (like a color spectrum)

____________________________________
Men Intersex Women

INTERSEX:
individuals born with ambiguous reproductive anatomy; sex is unclear

- Intersex births occur in approximaitely 1 in 1500 babies
Why differentiate?
Patriarchy is gender and male domination
PATRIARCHY:
form of social organization in which men/masculinity dominate

- Similar to how whites dominate or how the wealthy dominate lower social classes
Pay Gap: It Still Exists
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), full time employed women earned just 80.9% of the salaries their male counterparts did FOR THE SAME JOB.

The pay gap hasn't budged in over 10 years!

This is what women could afford if they were paid the same as men.

http://www.forbes.com/pictures/lmj45jdhd/how-far-equality-goes/


GENDER:
the socially constructed cultural expectations associated with being a man or a woman

The bundle of social roles and psychological traits expected of individuals based on their biological sex.

Gender is on a continuum

________________________________
Masculine Feminine

CISGENDER:
match between gender assigned at birth, bodies, and personal identity
Do some men do things better than women? Women better than men?
Gender socialization begins immediately
Gender in Everyday Life
GENDER IDENTITY
: private identification as as male, female, or some combination of both or neither. Can be same or different than gender assigned at birth.

GENDER EXPRESSION:
communication of gender identity to others through behavior, clothing, haircut, voice, etc. Associated with either being masculine or feminine.

TRANSGENDER:
individuals whose gender identity/expression is different from the one associated with their sex assigned at birth
Conflict and Feminist theorists:
we differentiate to devalue

Structural Functionalists:
we differentiate to take care of society's needs

Symbolic Interactionism:
we all "do" gender through our everyday interactions , even men
FEMINISM:
the advocacy of social equality for men and women, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism
SEXISM:

the ideology that one sex is superior to the other.

Prejudice plus power= discrimination

Race matters.
So does location
Occupational Segregation
PINK COLAR JOBS-

fields with high concentration of women tend to be lower paid

* REMEMBER: even in the same jobs women are paid less than men, too!

GLASS CEILING-
invisible barrier created by sexism that prevents qualified women from advancing to management (In 2015, 24 out of Fortune 500 CEOs are women)

GLASS ELEVATOR-
men in female dominated occupations often rise to the top of management
The Second Shift
SECOND SHIFT:
unpaid housework women typically do after they return from paid employment

Women still do about 2/3 of household chores though mens participation has increased in recent years.

Time for "Male chores" vs. "female chores"

How does this change with same-sex couples?
SEXUALITY:
a person's sexual desires, behaviors, and identity

Sexual norms vary by culture and over time; sexuality is, in part, a social construct


How is sexuality conceived of in the U.S. in 2015? How has this changed over time?
Attitudes regarding sex in the U.S. changed because of:
1. Kinsey book about sexuality in 1948. Talked about homosexuality and made private act of sex public.

2. Youth culture of 1950s and 60s rebelling against sexual norms.

3. The Pill was introduced in 1960.

4. Women's movement fought against double standards for sex.
Violence Against Women
SEXUAL HARASSMENT:
unwelcome sexual advances and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature
Hollaback Network

http://richmond.ihollaback.org/





DOMESTIC VIOLENCE:
pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another

85% of domestic violence directed at women

8 out of 10 women raped know rapist

1 in 4 heterosexual women will experience domestic violence in lifetime

1 in 4 to 1 in 3 (depending on source) people in a same sex partnership will experience domestic violence.

http://www.statisticbrain.com/domestic-violence-abuse-stats/


So....why do women stay?
Human Trafficking and Globalization
HUMAN TRAFFICKING:
trade of humans, mostly for the purposes of sexual slavery or forced labor.

Over 80% are exploited for sexual slavery.

Estimated $32 billion dollar/year profit

White Ribbon Campaign
Sexual Identities
SEXUAL IDENTITIES:
sense of self as it relates to type of sexual attraction we have for others

HETEROSEXUAL:
attracted to people of different sex

HOMOSEXUAL:
attracted to people of same sex

BISEXUAL:
attracted to people of both sexes

ASEXUAL:
no sexual attraction for anyone
Discrimination
HETEROSEXISM:
set of attitudes and behavior that indicate an assumption everyone is heterosexual

HOMOPHOBIA:
disapproval or fear of LGBT people; often a source of discrimination and hostility

HETEROSEXUAL PRIVILEGE:
privilege based on heterosexual orientation.

http://sap.mit.edu/content/pdf/heterosexual_privilege.pdf
Has this ever happened to you?
How is trafficking related to sexism and view of women (worldwide and in the US?)
Lets Talk about Ray Rice
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/04/07/kids-clothing-lines-break-gender-stereotypes_n_6925592.html
http://bust.com/agender-a-beautiful-photo-series-of-gender-nonconforming-youth.html
Why does this word get such a bad wrap?

LGBTQ Youth
Suicide is the 2nd leading cause of death among young people ages 10 to 24.

• LGB youth are 4 times more likely, and questioning youth are 3 times more likely, to attempt suicide as their straight peers

• Nearly half of young transgender people have seriously thought about taking their lives, and one quarter report having made a suicide attempt.

• LGB youth who come from highly rejecting families are 8.4 times as likely to have attempted suicide as LGB peers who reported no or low levels of family rejection.


http://www.itgetsbetter.org/
http://www.wikihow.com/Be-a-Hipster
Full transcript