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324 Chapter 1:
Transcript of 324 Chapter 1:
Your audience is your intended reader.
Adapt language and vocabulary for the reader.
Who will read your assignment?
What does the reader already know about the topic?
What info will the reader expect?
What tone is appropriate?
Your reason for writing.
What you are writing about...Find an angle that interests you.
What special knowledge do you have?
What subtopics are most relevant to you?
What aspect of the topic arouses your emotions?
Framework of College Writing
Can you support the topic sentence in a single paragraph?
Use an outline. There is one posted on Blackboard for every paragraph assignment.
Make a Paragraph Plan
Begin with a topic sentence
Substantiate your central idea with
Write freely for ten minutes without stopping
focus on grammar, punctuation, or spelling
stop to re-read
Paragraph has only one main idea
All sentences support topic sentence
Revise for Unity
Asking questions will help you to discover what you know about your subject
Use the five Ws
List ideas, details, and questions
Use words and phrases instead of sentences
Don’t worry about punctuation, grammar, or spelling
End with a concluding sentence
Find out more about your topic
1. Narrow topic
2. Express main idea
3. Develop supporting ideas
4. Make a plan: outline
5. Write first draft
Revising and Editing
Revise for unity.
Revise for adequate support.
Revise for coherence.
Revise for style.
Edit for technical errors.
Effective Topic Sentences
Is the topic sentence a complete sentence with a controlling idea?
Does the topic sentence make a valid and supportable point?
Narrow the Topic
General Topic: The job interview
Narrowed Topic: How to dress for a job interview
General Topic: College
Narrowed Topic: My misconceptions about college life
General Topic: Rituals
Narrowed Topic: The high school prom
*Tip: Break the general topic into smaller categories
Introduces the topic
States the controlling idea
Makes a point about topic
States writer's opinion, attitude, or feeling
Most general sentence in the paragraph
Followed by other sentences that provide supporting facts and examples
narrowed topic + controlling idea = topic sentence
should receive special treatment from the correctional system.
Rehabilitation and education are the best ways for the state to handle
Working in a restaurant.
I will write about part-time jobs.
Part-time jobs help college students build self-esteem.
Beauty is becoming more important in our culture.
Beauty is more important than it was in the past.
Fashion magazines do not provide readers with enough varied examples of beauty.
Love is important
My girlfriend was born on March 2.
During my first relationship, I learned a lot about being honest.
All sentences in the paragraph must relate directly to and support the topic sentence.
People steal for many reasons.
need money for food
want luxury items
minimum wage not enough to buy groceries
want to consume
lack of moral code
think they deserve something for nothing
Topic sentence: Freshman high school students should be forced to do community service on weekends.
A. in Haiti, youths helped rebuild houses after the earthquake
B. during last year's floods, student volunteers could have helped in shelters
C. can provide assistance in times of crisis
D. some students are too lazy and don't want to help anyone else
E. Miguel stopped littering after he cleared roadside garbage
F. provides a chance to learn about real-world issues with the environment, poverty, etc.
G. can gather food and clothing for the homeless
H. some students need to earn money on weekends
I. provides a character-building opportunity
J. Kelsey developed empathy when she worked at the women's shelter
K. need more shelters for battered women
L. Ivan became more generous after working with the homeless
Connected by transitional expressions that point to organization
Time Order (chronological)
in the beginning
Least to most important, most appealing to least, etc.
the least important
the most important
Help the reader visualize what you are describing in a specific space
on the bottom
on the left
Write a First Draft
Can be messy and incomplete
Revise for Adequate Support
Adequate support means enough details and examples to make it:
Revise for Coherence
Use transitional expressions so your paragraph flows smoothly. Remember, transitional expressions point to organizational strategy.
Revise for Style
Edit for Errors
Focus on language; look for mistakes in
Write the Final Version
If you have not rewritten at least twice, you are not finished. Even when you're sure you're done, read it one more time.