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324 Chapter 1:

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Cindy Zepeda

on 28 January 2015

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Transcript of 324 Chapter 1:

Chapter 1-3: The Writing Process
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Your audience is your intended reader.
Adapt language and vocabulary for the reader.
Who will read your assignment?
What does the reader already know about the topic?
What info will the reader expect?
What tone is appropriate?
Audience
Your reason for writing.
To inform
To persuade
To entertain
Purpose
What you are writing about...Find an angle that interests you.
What special knowledge do you have?
What subtopics are most relevant to you?
What aspect of the topic arouses your emotions?
Topic
Subject
Purpose
Audience

Framework of College Writing

Can you support the topic sentence in a single paragraph?

Too broad

Too narrow

Topic sentence

Use an outline. There is one posted on Blackboard for every paragraph assignment.
Make a Paragraph Plan
Begin with a topic sentence
Substantiate your central idea with




Write freely for ten minutes without stopping
Don’t:
focus on grammar, punctuation, or spelling
stop to re-read

JUST WRITE!

Freewriting
Paragraph has only one main idea
All sentences support topic sentence

Revise for Unity
Asking questions will help you to discover what you know about your subject
Use the five Ws
what
when
where
why
who
List ideas, details, and questions
Use words and phrases instead of sentences
Don’t worry about punctuation, grammar, or spelling

Brainstorming
Clustering
examples
descriptions
details
reasons
explanations
Use transitions
End with a concluding sentence
Find out more about your topic
Exploring:
Topic
Audience
Purpose
Strategies

Developing
1. Narrow topic
2. Express main idea
3. Develop supporting ideas
4. Make a plan: outline
5. Write first draft

Revising and Editing
Revise for unity.
Revise for adequate support.
Revise for coherence.
Revise for style.
Edit for technical errors.
Questions?
Effective Topic Sentences
Is the topic sentence a complete sentence with a controlling idea?

Incomplete

Announcement

Topic Sentence
Does the topic sentence make a valid and supportable point?

Vague

Invalid point

Topic sentence
Narrow the Topic
General Topic: The job interview
Narrowed Topic: How to dress for a job interview

General Topic: College
Narrowed Topic: My misconceptions about college life

General Topic: Rituals
Narrowed Topic: The high school prom

*Tip: Break the general topic into smaller categories
Topic Sentence
Introduces the topic
States the controlling idea
Makes a point about topic
States writer's opinion, attitude, or feeling
Most general sentence in the paragraph
Followed by other sentences that provide supporting facts and examples

narrowed topic + controlling idea = topic sentence

Youth offenders
should receive special treatment from the correctional system.
Rehabilitation and education are the best ways for the state to handle
youth offenders
.
Exploring Strategies
Prewriting
Freewriting
Brainstorming
Questioning
Clustering
Paragraph Structure
Working in a restaurant.

I will write about part-time jobs.

Part-time jobs help college students build self-esteem.
Beauty is becoming more important in our culture.

Beauty is more important than it was in the past.

Fashion magazines do not provide readers with enough varied examples of beauty.
Love is important

My girlfriend was born on March 2.

During my first relationship, I learned a lot about being honest.
Supporting Ideas
All sentences in the paragraph must relate directly to and support the topic sentence.

People steal for many reasons.

need money for food
want luxury items
for thrills
addiction
for drugs
minimum wage not enough to buy groceries
alcohol-related crimes
unemployment
want to consume
lack of moral code
think they deserve something for nothing
too lazy
adrenaline rush
Topic sentence: Freshman high school students should be forced to do community service on weekends.

A. in Haiti, youths helped rebuild houses after the earthquake
B. during last year's floods, student volunteers could have helped in shelters
C. can provide assistance in times of crisis
D. some students are too lazy and don't want to help anyone else
E. Miguel stopped littering after he cleared roadside garbage
F. provides a chance to learn about real-world issues with the environment, poverty, etc.
G. can gather food and clothing for the homeless
H. some students need to earn money on weekends
I. provides a character-building opportunity
J. Kelsey developed empathy when she worked at the women's shelter
K. need more shelters for battered women
L. Ivan became more generous after working with the homeless
Organizing Ideas
Connected by transitional expressions that point to organization

Time Order (chronological)
after that
eventually
finally
first
in the beginning
immediately

later
meanwhile
months after
next
suddenly
then
Emphatic Order
Least to most important, most appealing to least, etc.

above all
clearly
especially
first
in particular
last
moreover
most importantly
of course
principally
the least important
the most important
Space Order
Help the reader visualize what you are describing in a specific space

above
behind
below
beneath
closer in
farther out
nearby
on the bottom
on the left
on top
toward
under
Write a First Draft
Includes:
topic sentence
supporting details
concluding sentence

Can be messy and incomplete
Revise for Adequate Support
Adequate support means enough details and examples to make it:
strong
convincing
interesting
Revise for Coherence
Use transitional expressions so your paragraph flows smoothly. Remember, transitional expressions point to organizational strategy.
Revise for Style
Look for:
sentence variety
concise language
parallel structure
Edit for Errors
Focus on language; look for mistakes in
grammar
punctuation
mechanics
spelling
Write the Final Version
If you have not rewritten at least twice, you are not finished. Even when you're sure you're done, read it one more time.
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