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Transcript of Canadian Confederation
1. Georges Etienne Cartier
French Canadian lawyer from Montreal
equally comfortable with merchants, politicians, clergymen
equally comfortable speaking French or English
formerly belonged to the Parti Patriote and fought in Battle of St. Denis in 1837 Rebellion
an elected member for Canada East from 1848
travelled to London, England and met with Queen Victoria in 1858 to argue for uniting all the colonies in BNA
was co-prime minister of the United Canadas with John A. Macdonald
Paired up with....
2. John A Macdonald
Lawyer living in Kingston
born in Scotland
had a genius for politics and a great legal mind
credited with creating the Quebec Resolutions, which put forth the idea of Confederation in 1864
was co-prime minister of the United Canadas with Georges Etienne CArtier
...the tumultuous united Canadas to run smoothly.
Both also believed that Canada needed a railway to link it coast to coast
3. George Brown
editor of the Globe newspaper
anti-French and anti-Catholic
was no fan of Cartier or Macdonald
elected in Canada West in 1851
However, Cartier (#1), Macdonald (#2), and Brown (#3) eventually agreed on one thing......
UNITING ALL OF BRITISH NORTH AMERICA INTO ONE.
D'Arcy McGee agreed.
They both wanted....
They had a
4. D'Arcy McGee
former Fenian, journalist, poet, polititican
touted as the greatest orator in Canada in his time
believed passionately in a united Canada
advised Irish immigrants to choose Canada over the USA when they immigrated
organized the "Canadian Visit", a goodwill visit to the Maritimes that took place before the Charlottetown Conference
His speeches at the Charlottetown Conference and Quebec Conference
were said to sway the vote in favour of a united Canada
He became the only political assassination in Canada.
This is a cast of his death hand.
Canadian Confederation....The Events
1. Charlottetown Conference Sept 1-9, 1864
came about because Nova Scotia's lieutenant governor wanted the other Atlantic colonies (New Brunswick, Newfoundland, and PEI) to unite
Who was there?
Premier of Nova
Sir Samuel Leonard Tilley.
Former Premier of New
John Hamilton Gray.
John A Macdonald.
Charlottetown Conference....the results.....
1. Federalism was accepted in principle...
2. As far as money went, in principle, the members
accepted the idea that the central government would
assume provincial debts and pay an annual per capita
subsidy to the provinces.
3. George Brown suggested that the future legislature be
organized into a House of Commons and Senate...
4. Everybody liked the dream of a railway uniting the colonies
from sea to sea...
5. The Canadas were all for Confederation, but the Atlantic
provinces were not yet convinced that it was a good idea for
All in all things went so well that the delegates agreed to meet
again in Quebec.
Quebec Conference October 1864
a) April, 1861: US Civil War broke out.
They agreed on some things easily....
Started to hammer out a constitution for a united BNA.
Agreed that there would be a federal system with 3 levels of government.
Agreed on a House of Commons and Senate.
Other things were more difficult....
How would power be shared between the levels of government?
How would representation be determined in the House and the Senate?
PEI wanted a resolution for their absentee landlord problem; they did not get it.
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick feared being swallowed up by the larger Canadas.
The whole process differed from the formation of the US Constitution--no fancy Enlightenment principles for Canada!
The goal was order and good government.
Confederation, July 1, 1867
Only the Canadas, Nova Scotia, and New
Brunswick ended up joining Confederation.
November, 1866 representatives from the 4 colonies went to Britain to present their constitution.
The united colonies would be called
Canada. Can you imagine New York or
any of the other 13 colonies agreeing to call the USA Virginia because it was the most powerful colony at the time of the Declaration of Independence? Yikes! Only in Canada!
Queen Victoria chose Ottawa as the capital.
John A Macdonald became the first PM.
The Union had to be based on a strong
federal government. Canada did not
want the "states' rights" problems that
had led to Civil War in the USA.
The federal government had 37 distinct powers.
The provincial governments had 15 powers.
Only the federal government would be allowed
to levy direct and indirect taxes.
The federal government had the right to disallow
any provincial law that contravened a federal
statute. (Take that Mr. Calhoun!!)
Provincial governments were to be relied upon
to look after local needs.
Provincial governments would control property
and civil rights and language and religion.
A few things happened in the meantime....
c) Fenian Raid, April, 1866, New Brunswick
d) St. Alban's Raid, October, 1864.
b) November, 1861: Trent Incident
Other Provinces and Territories that joined later....
#5: Manitoba and Northwest Territories (1870)
#6: British Columbia (1871)
#7: P.E.I. (1873)
#8: Saskatchewan (1905)
#9: Alberta (1905)
#10: Newfoundland and Labrador (1949)
The last word will go to Amor De Cosmos, born William Alexander Smith.
He loved the idea of a united Canada so much that he fought to bring B. C. into Confederation.
He loved nature so much that he changed his name
to Amor De Cosmos, which means "Lover of the
See.......who says the Fathers of Confederation were boring?
Canada's red ensign.