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THE POST-WAR PERIOD (1945-1950) LIBERATION
Transcript of THE POST-WAR PERIOD (1945-1950) LIBERATION
During Post war, Philippine Architecture was dominated by the American style. In this period the plan for the modern city of Manila was designed with a large number of art deco buildings, by famous American and Filipino architects. During the liberation of Manila by the Americans in 1945 large portions of Intramuros and Manila were destroyed. In the period after the Second World War many of the destroyed buildings were rebuilt. At the end of the 20th century modern architecture with straight lines and functional aspects was introduced. During this period many of the older structures fell into decay. Early in the 21st Century a revival of the respect for the traditional Filipino elements in the architecture returned.
-In 1947 a corps of architects and engineers were tasked to study the modern US and Latin American capitals and formulate a master plan for Manila
-In 1946, the independent Philippines expressed its identity by implementing Modernism through the utilization of reinforced concrete, steel and glass, the predominance of cubicforms, geometric shapes and Cartesian grids, and the absense of applied decoration.
-Federico Ilustre, consulting architect from the 1950’s to 1970’s, worked on the building at the Elliptical Road in Q.C. The centerpiece is the 65-meter high Art Deco Quezon MemorialMonument, composed of 3 pylons topped by winged figures representing the 3 island groups.
-The 1950’s and 60’s staple architectural element were the brise-soleil, glass walls, piercedscreens, and thin concrete shells.
-The post-war doctrine was “form follows function” professed by the “3rd generation”architects, namely, Cesar Concio, Angel Nakpil, Alfredo Luz, Otillo Arellano,Felipe Mendoza,Gabriel Formoso and Carlos Arguelles.
-The 1950’s also witnessed Space Age aesthetics and Soft modernism, which experimentedwith the sculptural plasticity of poured concrete to come up with soft and sinuous organicforms with the use of thin shell technology. Examples are:
Victor Tiotuycos’s UP International Center and Jose Zaragoza’s UnionChurch
Church of the Holy Sacrifice, and Phil Atomic Research Center
-In the 1950’s the height of buildings was limited to 30 meters by law. With the amendment of Manila ordinance No. 4131, a high-rise fever redefined Manila’s skyline:
-Angel Nakpil’s 12-storey Picache Building, considered as the 1st skyscraper in thePhils.
-Cesar Concio’s Insular Life Building, the 1st office building to surpass the old 30-meterheight restriction.
- Space Architecture or also known as Googie Architecture.
- is the theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space.
-describes a futuristic, often flashy, building style that evolved in the United States during the 1950s.
Reflecting high-tech space-age ideas
• Flashing lights and neon signs
• Boomerang and palette shapes
• Starburst shapes
• Atom motifs
• Flying saucer shapes
• Sharp angles and trapezoid shapes
• Zig-zag roof-lines
SPACE ARCHITECTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES
UNION CHURCH OF MANILA
-designed by Architect Jose Maria Velez Zaragoza
The Union Church of Manila was founded in 1914 by a group of Presbyterian, Methodist and Disciples of Christ missionaries who agreed that a united ministry to the American population in the country transcended denominational concerns. The church struggled to survive during World War I, the Great Depression, World War II and the war for the liberation of Manila. After the United States recognized Filipino independence in 1946, membership grew quickly carrying on dozens of ministries and outreaches. It still advertises itself as an "international evangelical, English-speaking church,”
UP INTERNATIONAL CENTER
designed by Victor Tiotuyco
- It describes material qualities and new approaches to design. The most obvious associations with soft have been material characteristics—yielding readily to touch or pressure; deficient in hardness; smooth; pliable, malleable, or plastic. And this is the definition of "soft" that came to define some of the most exciting design motives of the 1960s and '70s. These new design approaches were skeptical of modernism; soft was deemed to enable uniqueness, openness, and lawlessness.
CHURCH OF THE RISEN LORD
Earlier years (Pre-construction of church)
In 1947, when the University of the Philippines was still in Padre Faura, Manila, a group of Protestant students started a movement named Christian Youth Movement (CYM) which aims to “make relevant Christian presence in the university campus”. They sought help from the Philippine Federation of Christian Churches (PFCC), now the National Council of Churches in the Philippines (NCCP). During that time, establishment, and recognition of any religious organization inside the campus was not allowed so they had to base themselves outside the campus, at the Cosmopolitan Church on Taft Avenue.
The Church of the Risen Lord was designed to have an exterior shape similar to a parabola. This kind of architectural design symbolizes the belief that there are imperfections outside the Christian world and all of our aspirations to be perfect are useless. A characteristic of a parabola is that it has no distinctive peak just like of a triangle and it has no one slope. As we go up the parabola, before we get to the highest peak, we can observe that we eventually go down.
Also, entering in the church represents the desire to partake the God’s Bread of Life, which symbolizes God’s spiritual being. As we continue to go to the chancel (similar to the altar of the Catholics but has no visual representations of holy beings) – the salvation despite the imperfections in the real world, we can observe that the width of the church is narrowing and this represents the one true path/direction towards the chancel (the salvation).
In addition, the overall architecture of the Church provides a light, airy feeling due to the louvres; the large window panels also provides a natural lighting to scatter around the Church. There is also a balcony where the music ministry is situated during service.
The Church has a basilica design and features a concrete shell roof, this time curved like a piece of folded paper. As you enter the church you would first notice the big cross at the center of the altar with no human image, a partly explanation for this is the Protestant belief that Jesus' physical body was glorified and resurrected and no longer resides on the earth therefore the lack of Jesus' physical images. The place provides a solemn and serene atmosphere to worship and provides for its congregation. On the benches are several copies of the Bible, notebooks and pens. The Church is also a popular venue for weddings.
CHURCH OF THE HOLY SACRIFICE (UP Chapel)
The Parish of the Holy Sacrifice is the landmark Catholic chapel in the University of the Philippines Diliman. Known for its architectural design, the church is recognized as a National Historical Landmark and a Cultural Treasure by the National Historical Institute and the National Museum respectively. Five National artists collaborated on the project. The building was designed by the late National Artist for Architecture, Leandro Locsin. Alfredo Juinio served as the structural engineer for the project. Around the chapel are fifteen large murals painted by Vicente Manansala depicting the Stations of the Cross. The marble altar and the large wooden cross above it were sculpted by Napoleon Abueva. The mosaic floor mural called the “River of Life” was designed by Arturo Luz.
- The First structure with a thin-shell concrete dome architecture.
- The Chapel is basically open , there are no doors.
- Slanted columns
- The chapel is circular, and the altar is right in the center of the circle.
THIN CONCRETE SHELL
The majority of the thin concrete shell structures were constructed by pouring wet concrete onto a rigid wooden formwork, often assembled from straight elements. This construction process required many skilled craftsmen.
In the 50’s, buildings in Manila are just permitted to get as high as 30 meters or 10 storeys, owing to the fact that Manila is very prone to liquefaction during earthquakes and the water pressure of the water pipes back then can’t reach higher than that. Pumps are not yet that available commercially. But by the next decade this restriction was lifted, and one of the very first buildings to go beyond 30 meters is this building, the Picache Building by Angel Nakpil.
THE INSULAR LIFE BUILDING
Previously, it held its corporate offices at the Insular Life Building in Makati City. That building was built in 1962 and was the first to surpass the 30 meter height restriction in the Philippines. It has gently curving façade entirely covered by narrow vertical aluminium projections that were set close together within square modules to conceal the curtain wall behind it. Originally designed by Cesar Concio, the building was controversially redeveloped in 2005 with a design by the Japanese firm, Takenobu Mohri Architects and Associates.
Other Buildings during 1950’S
NATIONAL PRESS CLUB
Designed by Angel Nakpil
The four-storey main building was built in June 1954 and inaugurated on December 30, 1955 by President Ramon Magsaysay. It was designed by the late Angel E. Nakpil as one of the modern and first earthquake-proof buildings in the Philippines, and constructed by Engr. Alberto T. Abaya.
The NPC building is a popular forum for press conferences held by other organizations.
DESIGNED BY FRANSICO MANOSA
The Coconut Palace also known as “Tahanang Pilipino” is the official workplace of the Vice president of the Philippines. It is located at Pasay. The palace is made from hardwood, coconut shells and a specially engineered coconut lumber also known as Imelda Madera. Each of the suites on the second floor is named after a specific region of the Philippines and displays some of the handicrafts these regions produce. The palace is shaped like an octagon (the shape given to a coconut before being served), while the roof is shaped like a traditional Filipino salakot or hat.