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Copy of Copy of Leptosporosis

Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals. It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, some of which may be mistaken for other diseases. Some infected persons, however, may
by

Sigfred Kit Lagajino

on 13 March 2012

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Leptosporosis

Prevention and
Control
Research
LEPTOSPIROSIS!
Notes
San Francisco
Budapest
ALTERNATIVE
NAMES
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
(cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr
(cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious bacterial disease
carried by animals
, whose
urine
contaminates water or food

which is
INGESTED
or
INOCULATED
through the skin

Weil's disease
Canicola Fever
Mud Fever
Etiologic Agent!
Incubation period!
Varies from 6-15 days
Period of Communicability!
Leptospira are found in the urine
between
10-20 days
after onset
Sources of Infection!
Modes of transmission!
Ingestion
or
contact
to the skin with the infecrted urine or carcasses of some kinds of animals.

through the mucus membrane of the eyes, nose, mouth and through the break on the skin

Penetrates softened skin after prolonged water exposure
Hemorrhagic jaundice
*Leptospira interogans*
chiefly a
saprophytic
aquatic organisms
which are found in:
river
lake water
sewage
sea
rats
mice
dogs
rabbit
skunks
frogs
snakes
leptospires can survive in
freshwater
for as long as
16 days
and in
soil
for as many as
24 days.
Persons at an increased
risk for leptospirosis
farmers
miners
animal health care workers
fish farmers and processors
sewage workers
canal workers
soldiers
High risk activities
care of pets
hunting
hiking
trail biking
freshwater swimming
rafting
canoeing/kayaking
participating in sports in muddy fields.
Avoid swimming or wading in freshwater ponds andslowly moving streams, especially those located near farms.
Control rats and mice
around the home.
proper drainage system
Have pets and farm animals vaccinated against Leptospira.
Wear protective clothing
(gloves, boots, long pants, and long-sleevedshirts)
when working with wet soil or plants.
hope you learned something!
hope you learned something!!!
Cases of Leptospirosis outbreaks
Borneo island
Eco-challenge multi sport expedition race
Participants included athletes from 29 US states and 26 countries
51 out of 78 participants in the race had developed symptoms consistent with leptospirosis.
Leptospira were the cause of illness and water from the
Segama River
was the primary source of infection. Activities include:
In an outbreak investigation of leptospirosis among participants in an
adventure race in Florida,
the factors found to be associated with increased risk of leptospirosis included
swallowing river water,

swallowing swamp water
and
being submerged in any water.
A study among US military personnel in Okinawa, Japan who were negotiating an
underwater obstacle course
found that
the risk of leptospirosis was 18x higher
among those
who swallowed water during immersion.
Leptospirosis is an endemic zoonosis in the
Philippines
with an average of
680 leptospirosis cases
and
40 deaths from the disease reported every year
and a
prevalence of 10/100,000.
It is
seasonal
with a
peak incidence during
the rainy months of
July
to
October
.
As of November 2009, (after typhoon ondoy)
National Epidemiology Center of the Department of Health

reported
2,299 suspected cases
of leptospirosis with
178 deaths

in 15 hospitals in
Metro Manila
and
257 confirmed cases
over a period of two months.
In the
Luzon region
,
1090 cases
and
71 deaths
in
Regions I, III, IV-A and Cordillera Autonomous Region
were recorded. Overall
case fatality rate
was
7.4%
. This was way beyond the yearly endemic threshold of leptospirosis cases in the country.
It is anticipated that leptospirosis will continue to re-emerge in the country as a result of rapid urbanization, deforestation, poor sanitation and increased incidence of typhoons brought about by climate changes (Leptospirosis CPG 2010).
Jose Llacuna Jr., Department of Health assistant regional director for Northern Mindanao, confirmed on 5 January, "that a total of
314 cases
of Leptospirosis infection were diagnosed,
eight of them die.
"
About
80 percent
of reported
cases in Mindanao
diagnosed were among
males,
with a median age of 26. "Men are left to clean up flooded homes and haul heavy objects. They are the ones exposed to infected flood waters,"
But despite the outbreak, the levels of Leptospirosis are still nowhere near those reported during Typhoon Ketsana in 2009, when there were more than 2,000 cases and 167 reported deaths.
There is, however, still reason to worry.
"The
accumulated mud
is still a potential source of infection. It may still contain
bacteria
from the
carcasses
of
rodents
or their
feces and urine
which remain in the soil,"
Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC),
A review of the clinical presentation of
353 cases
of
laboratory confirmed leptospirosis in Hawaii
from 1974 to 1998 showed that the most common presentation included
fever
,
myalgia
and
headache.
Signs and Symptoms:
Septic Stage / Bacteremic Stage
Sudden onset, fever, rigors, headache, photophobia
severe myalgias (muscle pain), abdominal pain, chills,
tenderness in calves, thighs and mif back, macular rash
Immune or Toxic Stage
with or without jaudice lasting for 4-30 days
iritis, meningeal manifestations like disorientation,
convulsions, with CSF findings of asetic meningitis
progressive renal failure
pulmonary complications
shock, coma, and Congestive heart failure are seen in severe cases
DEATH may occur between the 9th to the 16th day
By being aware of the nature of the disease Leptospirosis and following the preventive measures we can help stop the spread and occurance of this infectious disease.
in case of exposure to places/areas where Leptospirosis bacteria could possibly be found and after a day or two signs of infection occurs, prompt visit to the hospital is needed to prevent more serious damage to the organs of the body as well as to prevent DEATH.
Leptospirosis infection is curable specially in the early stages with the use of antibiotics
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