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Transcript of European Exploration
The Motivation, Obstacles, and Accomplishments
The student will demonstrate knowledge of European exploration in North America and West Africa by:
a.) describing the motivations for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English exploration
b.) describing cultural and economic interactions between European and American Indians that led to cooperation and conflict, with emphasis on the American Indian concept of land
c.) identifying the location and describing the characteristics of West African societies (Ghana, Mali, Songhai) and their interaction with traders.
Four major European countries
were in competition to extend their power into North America and claim the land as their own
Why do you think European countries were motivated to explore and interested in competing for power in North America?
The 3 big Motivators for Europeans to explore were:
1.) Religion- Spreading Christianity
2.) Economics- Gold, natural
resources, and trade
3.) Competition- growing empires
and beliefs of nationalism
Europeans were very interested in becoming rich.
The Natural Resources in the New World were thought to have been plentiful and unscathed.
The Europeans were motivated
by such things as
natural resources and trading opportunities. But mostly, it was
First, What is the definition of economics?
- the science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, or money.
By the end of the 1400s
, FOUR Major Countries
GOLD- a natural resource
and one of 3 main economically motivating factors for European exploration
Natural Resources such as:
3.) New Crops
4.) and many more...
Europeans would also gain New Trading opportunities meaning:
1.) Having a new group of people to trade with
2.) Having new products to purchase
3.) Obtaining new products to sell back home
4.) Obtaining new products to sell everywhere else
Trade was also one of the 3 main economically motivating factors for the Europeans
What is a good definition for religion?
- a set of beliefs and practices agreed upon by a number of people, focused on the creation and afterlife usually.
In the case of motivation, European countries were very willing and excited about spreading their religion to the New World.
The religion Europeans wanted to spread was
The third motivator for Europeans was to spread their nations empire to the New World
Each European nation has a different way of culture.
What do you think were some of the obstacles faced by the explorers?
Let's do a quick reading activity
The journey to the New World was not an easy task. Several Europeans struggled to even complete a successful voyage over the Atlantic ocean, AKA
THE SEA OF GLOOM
Well, there were
4 main obstacles
that seemed to always cause havoc on the the explorers, NO MATTER WHERE THEY WERE FROM.
1.) Poor maps and navigational tools
Since no one had really ever
been to the New World, there
were no real maps to explain
where on their voyages they
2.) Disease and starvation
3.) Fear of the unknown
4.) Lack of adequate supplies
Many of the crew did not know how long the journey would be to the New World, so they would not pack adequately
AGAIN: North America was explored by 4 main countries:
Spain was one of the original explorers.
Many famous explorers sailed
Some names you may recognize may be:
1.) Christopher Columbus (Italian, but sailed for Spain)
Coronado claimed the Southwest of the present day United States for Spain
Francisco Coronado and his "team" are credited with the discovery of the Grand Canyon (NOT THE EXPLORATION OF)
Stories of gold and riches located to the north of Mexico had begun to circulate in the 1530s. Explorers told tales of seven golden cities of Cíbola. The following year, Coronado was selected to lead a mission to further explore these claims.
Coronado set out with about 300 Spanish soldiers and roughly 1,000 Indians. Disappointed by the expedition's failure to find a golden city, he decided to send his men out in different directions to investigate further.
One group traveled to the Colorado Plateau.
Another group set out and became the first Europeans to see the Grand Canyon.
Coronado spent that winter in Tiguex, a community made of several Pueblo Indian villages. Before long, he and his expedition had a falling out with the local peoples over supplies. Coronado then moved on in the spring, heading east over the Pecos River.
They continued their search through what is now Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas, before giving up their quest.
2.) Amerigo Vespucci (Italian, but sailed for Spain)
3.) Francisco Pizarro (Conquered the Inca in Peru)
4.) Hernando De Soto (First to explore Florida)
5.) Hernan Cortes (Conquered the Aztecs)
There are several more, but
the person we are going to look at is
Looks so friendly
Story of Coronado
On a side note:
The person responsible for exploring the Grand Canyon is John Wesley Powell
and here is his monument at the Grand Canyon...
Coronado's Report to the King of Spain
Sent from Tiguex on October 20, 1541
Letters from Francisco Vazquez de Coronado to His Majesty, in which he gives an Account of the Discovery of the Province of Tiguex.
...This news troubled me greatly, to find myself on these limitless plains, where I was in great need of water, and often had to drink it so poor that it was more mud that water. Here the guides confessed to me that they had not told the truth in regard to the size of the houses, because these were of straw, but that they had done so regarding the large number of inhabitants and the other things about their habits. The Teyas disagreed with this, and on account of this division between some of the Indians and the others, and also because many of the men I had with me had not eaten anything except meat for some days, because we had reached the end of the corn which we carried from this province, and because they made it out more than forty days' journey from where I fell in with the Teyas to the country where the guides were taking me, although I appreciated the trouble and danger there would be in the journey owing to the lack of water and corn, it seemed to me best, in order to see if there was anything there of service to Your Majesty, to go forward with only 30 horsemen until I should be able to see the country, so as to give Your Majesty a true account of what was to be found in it. I sent all the rest of the force I had with me to this province, with Don Tristan de Arellano in command, because it would have been impossible to prevent the loss of many men, if all had gone on, owing to the lack of water and because they also had to kill bulls and cows on which to sustain themselves. And with only the 30 horsemen whom I took for my escort, I traveled forty-two days after I left the force, living all this while solely on the flesh of the bulls and cows which we killed, at the cost of several of our horses which they killed, because, as I wrote Your Majesty, they are very brave and fierce animals; and going many days without water, and cooking the food with cow dung, because there is not any kind of wood in all these plains, away from the gullies and rivers, which are very few...
Let's look at a primary source from Coronado to the King of Spain.
First, do you remember what a primary source is?
I'll read it, you listen closely. THEN YOU WILL HAVE SOME WORK TO DO, so pay attention and listen closely.
He kinda looks like
Rah's Al Ghul from
Curse you Batman
I’m so upset! This place is huge and has no end! I’m so thirsty, I’ve been drinking muddy water this whole time, how do these people survive like this over here? While I’m standing here; tired, hot, and thirsty, our guide decides to tell me he’s been lying about these houses around here. So now we are going to be sleeping in some cramped houses; great… The two native groups that we are with seem to be disagreeing about where we Spaniards are going to sleep and what we are going to eat tonight, but to be honest I don’t care where I sleep, nor what we eat, just as long as it is not beef again. Too much protein!! Not Good! But, we’re out of corn so who knows… Quite honestly, I'm growing quite tired of these people here as well. I think it's time to leave.
Tomorrow we will set out to explore this huge grassland plain in search for this Golden City. The natives here seem to think this land is great, but I will let you know personally my King. I will let you know of our experience and findings in the next section of this letter. I have split our crew into teams so we can cover more ground. Some will go west, led by ole crazy Don Tristan to see if they can find anything useful. I will go east with 29 other men on horseback.
It has been 42 days since we split ways with the other team. I’m so sick of eating cow, it’s gross, because I can’t even cook it! Plus, I’m very upset because these cows killed some of my horses! They are some feisty cows! I’m so thirsty, but there is nothing the drink…ugh. I need something to drink! I’m so tired of this place, I want to go home just so I can cook over an open fire made from wood. If we want to cook anything we have to light cow flop on fire, that doesn’t work very well! When it does work it makes the meat taste gross. There is no wood anywhere to be found. Hopefully we come across another river soon…
Mr. Wilson's version of Francisco Coronado's letter to the King of Spain
Some very important names go along with France for the age of exploration as well...
Some names you may or may not recognize are:
We are going to look at
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain -
established the French settlement of Quebec
They wanted to spread their ways to the New World and establish a dominant presence amongst the Native people and other European countries.
The second Frenchman that
we are going to look at is
Robert La Salle.
Robert La Salle-
claimed the Mississippi River Valley for France.
was a long, but affective
founded by Champlain in 1608
1.) Jaques Cartier (followed the St. Lawrence River as far as Montreal.)
2.) Louis Joilet (traveled the Mississippi Basin)
3.) Jean Nicolet ( was a companion to Samuel de Champlain that explored Lake Michigan.)
Sir La Salle, in February of 1682, set out to explore the Illinois River, starting at the St. Lawrence River...
He and about 50 men, traveled south, then north, then west, then south again till reaching the Illinois River, eventually meeting up with the
Mighty Mississippi River...
Two months later, La Salle found himself in the Gulf of Mexico. With shouts of "LONG LIVE THE KING!!" they claimed the Mississippi River valley for France.
This area included all of the rivers tributaries!!
Meaning, La Salle had claimed from just west of the Appalachian Mountains, all the way to the Rocky Mountains
AND, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether the territory looked like this...
La Salle called Mississippi River Basin territory, Louisiana. Named after the King of France; King Louis XIV.
Where La Salle Started his journey
"LONG LIVE THE KING"
In 1684, La Salle tried to start a settlement near the mouth of the Mississippi River.
However, it was difficult in the hot, swampy land.
Hardships took over and
3 years later, one of the
"settlers" killed La Salle.
Without a strong leader,
the settlement failed for
When we, as Americans, think of people exploring our region, we usually think England for some reason.
And for good reason we do this. England was one of the major settlers, if not the largest group of settlers here in North America.
Like France and Spain, England had several explorers adventure from their land over to the "New World"
Some popular names that you may or may not recognize are:
Sir Francis Drake English (1540-1597) Circumnavigated the World
Sir Walter Raleigh (English) (1552-1618) The Discovery of Guiana and establishing the North Carolina colony of Roanoke Island in 1584
Sir Richard Grenville (English) (1542-1591) Voyages to Virginia and Roanoke Island and the Azores by this famous explorer
John Cabot (Italian/
Known for exploring the
coastline of Canada.
Cabot was the second famous explorer to find North America (after Christopher Columbus)
We are going to turn our attention to one English explorer in particular;
AS stated at the beginning of the Spain section, there were many explorers that had their hands in the exploration and settlement of the New World.
After all settlement and exploration, New Spain, in the New World looked like this...
Let's outline our first settlement on our map and color it. Don't forget to make the key.
Thanks to many tries,
European explorers can
claim several successes
1.) Exchanged goods and ideas with new groups
2.) Improved navigational tools and ships
3.) Claimed territories
Portugal was not really into exploring North America.
Portugal was more interested
in their discoveries of the
resources in West Africa.
Portuguese made voyages of discovery along the coast of West Africa
BETWEEN NATIVES AND EUROPEANS
Essential Understanding: The interactions between American Indians and Europeans sometimes led to cooperation and other times resulted in conflict.
Cultural interactions between Spain and the Natives
Spain conquered and enslaved American Indians
Spain brought Christianity to the New World
Spain also brought European diseases to American Indians. Diseases such as small pox.
Cultural interactions between France and the Natives
France established trading posts.
Christianity to the
When the French first entered North America, their primary focus was on gaining wealth through the fur trade.
They viewed Indians as trading partners, as important elements in acquiring the furs which would generate great wealth.
Cultural interactions between England and the Natives
England established settlements and claimed ownership of land
England learned farming techniques from American Indians
England traded with
In 1585, Sir Walter Raleigh took on one of the first English settlement attempts. Which was very temporary.
He set up a colony of about 100 men on the east coast of North America. This settlement only lasted for about a year before they returned to England
This place was called Roanoke
I will teach you farming
Cultural interaction from the
American Indians point of view
American Indians taught farming techniques to European settlers.
American Indians believed that
land was to be used and shared
but not OWNED.
Spain really wanted that gold
What's up partner?!!
Ready to make that fur?
Speaking of the sharing
life style, let's look at
between the Europeans
and the Natives
Areas of co-operation in economic interactions
with them weapons
and metal farm tools
Areas of Conflict between
the Natives and Europeans
Natives believed that everyone had rights to work it and use it; Europeans believed that it is something to be owned individually.
Competition for trading.
Differences in cultures
look at a
The three empires that
we are going to look at in AFRICA are
Mali, Songhai, and Ghana
Ghana, Mali, and Songhai each dominated West Africa one after another from 300 to 1600 AD
African people and African goods played an important role in European interest in world resources.
All 3 are located in the western region of Africa, south of the Sahara Desert, near the Niger River
All 3 became powerful by controlling trade in West Africa
Portugal carried goods from Europe to West African Empires, trading metals, cloth, and other manufactured goods for gold.
Just for fun, let's look at a population chart for Europeans and American Indians in their designated areas, during these times of exploration and into the 1700s...
Estimated European Populations:
English in Virginia 100 72,000
French in New France 100 13,000
Spanish in New Mexico 500 3,000
Estimated Native Populations
Powhatans 15,000 1,000
Hurons 20,000 100’s
Pueblos 60,000 14,000
SUMMARY OF ALL GROUPS IN
THE NEW WORLD
From Spain: The Conquistadors
From France: The Traders
From England: The Settler
Summary of Spain
- The Conquistadors
- Conquered and enslaved American Indians
- Carried European diseases that killed millions of native people
- Brought the Christian faith to the Americas
Summary of France
- The Trader
- Set up a network of trading posts and were especially interested in getting furs
- Were eager to spread the Christian religion
Summary of England
- The Settlers
- Established settlements and then claimed ownership of the land
- Learned farming techniques from American Indians
- Traded with American Indians
The American Indians
- Caught in the middle of European exploration
- Many believed that land was shared and not owned by individuals
- Taught farming techniques to the settlers who would have starved without their help
- Traded to get European weapons and metal farm tools
All European Groups
- brought guns, swords, and metal farm tools
- carried European diseases that Native Americans were not immune to
- claimed ownership of land
OR IN OTHER WORDS:
GOD, GOLD, and GLORY
Let's discuss each
Some of the tools that they had included:
1.) The Astrolabe
2.) The Compass
3.) Rectangular Sails