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Copy of How to be an effective sports coach/leader

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chloe eggleton

on 14 October 2014

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Transcript of Copy of How to be an effective sports coach/leader

How to be an effective sports coach/leader
The roles you will undertake as a coach will be many and varied and you will find at some stage in your coaching career that you will be but not limited to the following four.
All coaches need to be aware of their responsibilities.
All coaches will have to learn and develop skills to become a successful coach.
Sports leader
A sports leader is someone who takes the session and is there to oversee things not give coaching points and specifically improve skills
To be a good sports leader there are 4 different qualities you must have...
Comparison of Coaches/ and sports (Educator)
Role model
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (role model)
Comparison of coaches/ and sports
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (innovator)
Professional conduct
Health and Safety
Legal obligations
Knowledge of coaching environment
Time management
• A role model is a person who is looked to by others.
• As a coach you should be a role model to the athletes you are coaching.
• You should get the athletes to look up to you.
• You should be approachable.
• You should look smart and sporty when Coaching.
• Younger people will copy you.
• E.G if you stand with bad posture and your legs crossed over they will do the same.
• Speak properly, don’t use slang.
• You should be trying to act professional all the time.
• Similar to being a role model.
• You should try to get your players to act professionally as well.
• Don’t make inappropriate jokes and use bad language.
• If you have a 7 year old playing hockey you would not scream and shout at them if they make mistakes.
• When coaching young people you should not treat them like babies.
• Ensuring that the athletes are safe.
• Health and safety stars before the session start.
• Risk assessments.
• Emergency procedures, there should be a procedure in place when an accident happens.

• Organisation key when coaching a session.
• If you are not organised you can’t run a session smoothly and efficiently.
• How long have you got?
• What equipment do you need?
• Make sure the equipment works.
• Have a back up plan encase the first one does not go to plan.

• A leader needs to be an organiser.
• The leader must be prepared for the session.
• Panning the activity is key.
• Have a clear plan of what you are going to do.
• Planning a session at least a week before the session.
• Have a back-up plan for every session.

As a leader you should know how to lead and plan for the following:

- Health and screen questions.
- Personal details (consent forms)
- Plyers previous and sporting experience.
- Player ability
- Players physical attributes

You should also have a contingency plan for:

- Bad weather
- Lack of equipment
- Facility unavailability
- Too many people In a session.

Knowledge of sport skills
• Experience is key.
• Can you do the skill yourself?
• Use demonstrations
• Use your voice to tell them how to do the new skill.
• Don’t use video analysis, it is too complicated.
• You obviously would not jump in to advanced skill if you were leading a group of 5 year olds.
• You would not going into a running throw before a throw by itself.

• As a sports leader you should be patient.
• Not all of your athletes are going to be able to do what you want straight away.
• You will have lots of different abilities of students.
• Don’t do hard drill if you know they are not good.
• No point in getting impatient with them if you have planned a hard session.
• By being patient you are also setting an example.
• Allow room for improvement.

• Your athletes will want the confidence to do is come up to you and ask questions.
• Some children/adults will be confident whoever you are.
• You should help the less confident ones.
• You can be approachable by being kind and friendly.
• You should treat everyone equally and not favour any children.
• You should also be role model.
• You should not be aggressive towards your players.

An educator uses a combination of learning, skills and experience. They teach new skills and build on previously learned ones.
This allows the student to pursue more in their education. For example if a child is learning to ride but they haven’t learnt to keep their heels down, then they would find jumping and any other concept of riding difficult to carry out.

There are 3 main teaching methods:

1. Manual guidance:
This is when the teacher is helping someone by holding them while doing the movement. Or if the skill is dangerous the performer may be in a belt or sling to give more support.
2. Visual guidance:
This is when the coach teaches through demonstratioons, for example a coach video recording a player.
3. Verbal guidance:
This is a spoken explanation of the skill that can take place before, during or after the skill has been carried out.

As an educator you must know different methods of learning, this will help vary the sessions you teach and will improve the student’s learning as some may suit one type of learning better.

There are four main methods of learning:

Part method, massed practice, spaced practice and whole learning.
for example a student with dyslexia they will find massed practice easier to take in because they will repeat the skill over and over again, to therefore keep the motivation levels high, and will allow for muscle memory to take place.
As a coach you need to be a friend to the people you are coaching.
To do this well you need to know each individual so you treat them as individuals.
You need to adapt the way you approach people so you can help everyone individually and get the most out of them.
The way you would be a friend would change depending on who you were coaching. e.g. If you were coaching a 6-8 year old they want to play games, you would need to have fun with the children.
To be a friend towards a teenager it’s important to be approachable so they have someone they feel they can talk to, you can't cross the barrier and need to keep the difference between the athlete and the coach.
If you were coaching an adult they might want to have a drink with you but you need to decide whether that would be appropriate or whether it will cross the line.
As a coach it is your job to set that line and make sure it is not crossed but still be understanding enough and have fun so you can be their friend at the same time.
Being their friend will mean they are more likely to improve their skills and have fun at the same time.
This means they are more likely to stay in the sport.
An innovator is a coach who introduces new methods.
They are creative and will take a standard practice and make changes to it to aim that practice to a fault of the team.
For example a hockey coach can see that a striker isn’t getting high enough on the pitch when playing, so they adapt a passing practice of three into two making the striker passes the ball into the middle of the pitch then runs to the top of the D and receives the ball.
They will use varied practices to help success throughout the team, they also uses encouragement and strategies to help motivate their teams.
A coach’s creativity also inspires team members to perform better and encourages creativity.
All coaches need to be aware of their legal responsibilities. They should:
Give appropriate advice and guidance
Not offer advice beyond their level of qualification.
A coaches legal obligations are:
Appropriate insurance - it needs to cover public liability and personal accidents.
Appropriate transportation - they should not not use their own vehicles. With young children coaches should ask for help from parents and guardians.
Education in supplements - coaches have a responsibility to educate their athletes about drug use and abuse & provide general appropriate nutritional advice.
DBS - All coaches need a DBS. They have to carry this check out their self. If they do not have this they are not legally allowed to work with children.
First aid - Every three years the coach will have to renew their first aid qualification.
Safe guarding - Coaches have a responsibility to protect all students from all forms of abuse, this could include neglect, emotional abuse, sexual abuse or physical abuse.
As a coach it is your job to have a good knowledge of your coaching environment.
You need to know how much space you have and how many students you have.
You need to make sure you have enough space for the amount of people and that the area you have is safe.
You should make sure there are no obstructions and if there are you will need to deal with them by moving them out of the way or if that’s not possible cone them off and warn your athletes about them.
You should know if the quality of the pitch will change in different weather for example if you were playing football on the field and it rained would it make the pitch dangerous to play on? If it does then you should change the practice to make it safe in the different conditions.
Communication is a way of sharing information
It is essential to have good communication skills because when trying to coach it is easy to read an adults way of communicating wrong.
Non-verbal communication is things like body language, facial features and verbal communication which is speaking.
A coach must communicate to their team in an affective way...for example to give them praise when they listen and have achieved something, to show that they are sad/angry/ or annoyed
An example of bad communication is… A football team won their game but the coach had their arms crossed but hadn’t said a word and facial features are frowning; the team would automatically think that they are not pleased with this. This is why non-verbal communication and verbal communication works hand in hand.
An example of good communication... The Football team had won their game the coach is smiling arms are by their side but still didn’t say a word; the team would automatically think that the coach is happy with the out come.
As a coach it is important to have good time management.
This includes being on time for the session and good timings within the session.
You should always try to get to the session before your athletes and set everything up so you look professional this means you will probably need to get there 20/30mins early.
You should try and make some guidelines of timings during the session such as how long you are going to spend practicing a skill and how long you are going to play a game.
This is not always possible so you will only be able to make rough guidelines as the athletes might need longer than you thought on a certain skill which means you will have to change it slightly. It is just to help you not spend way to long on one thing and fit everything you need to into the session.
As a sports leader it is important to be a guardian because you have a responsibility to look after the people you are leading.
A sports leader is responsible for the participants welfare during sessions.
They have a duty of care and must protect everyone taking part.
A sports leader must also be a teacher but not in the same way that a coach is a teacher.
They will not give as many coaching points and teach general technique not sports specific.
They will get them to bring across skills from other sports and build on that as a basic level.
They will also concentrate more on making their teaching fun and inventive rather than trying to improve specific skills.
You should figure out how your participants learn best by teaching in lots of different styles, you can find this out by watching how they do in different learning environments.
If you are teaching a complicated skill you should try and get them to use their best learning style.
However you should also get everyone to learn in all styles as it will help them in the future and they need to be able to learn in all even if it’s not their favourite.
Understanding the mental needs of participants
A sports leader needs to understand the mental needs of participants because if they don’t the participants will not be motivated and will perform badly or get upset.
They need to recognise that everyone is different and make sure the session doesn’t make anyone feel uncomfortable, put them outside of their comfort zone or use words which upset them as the sessions run by sports leaders are just meant to be for fun and practicing already learnt skills.
A sports leader that understands these needs will encourage participants using positive reinforcement such as well dones and high fives. This will help build their confidence and make themselves feel good about the session and about the sports leader themselves.

Understanding the physical needs of participants
A sports leader needs to understand the physical needs of participants as they need to know what difficulty to make the session.
If they have experienced player the session will need to be fast paced and challenging.
Complete beginners will need a funner and more engaging session.
The need to know how fit their participants are and whether they can throw and catch etc to know what intensity to make the session.
Knowledge of rules and laws
Knowledge of rules is fundamental to being a leader.
They need to share their knowledge with juniors who don't know the rules.
Rules create a level playing field between players.
They define what is allowed on and off the court and cover things from uniform to the score.
Rules differ between sports and ages.
When teaching 7 year olds basketball you wouldn't teach them about double dribble as they would struggle but you would teach them to run and bounce the ball with one hand.
A sports leader needs to be consistent with the way they treat participants, the rules they are enforcing and they way they talk to the group.
If they are inconsistent with they way they treat people they will be showing favoritism which will make others feel like they aren't good enough.
They need to be consistent with rules because it's unfair if the rules change throughout the game as they will favor certain people which will make others upset.
They need to be consistent in the way they talk to the group because then they know what to expect and aren't getting mixed messages about they way you behave and what you expect from them.
A good sports leader will have these 4 characteristics
Trampolining: Good educator - uses correct terminology, talks about science behind moves. Bad educator - didn't use correct terminology, only educated us after the competition.

Hockey: Rob Setchell, my coach, is a good educator - Teaches new skills (moving on from old skill). E.g. you can’t dribble into the D and hit the ball if you have not learnt to hit a moving ball. He uses his past experiences to help us. (positioning). He is not afraid to give manual guidance E.G, getting in front of a defender in the right way. Rob has never videoed a game, but he uses demonstrations. A strong point of Rob is his verbal guidance. Former coach was not a good educator. Does not teach me new skills, uses the ones we have already got. This coach does not use any of his experience to help us. (tournaments has been to before) Does not use a variety of drills. Does not use his mouth enough, too many demonstrations.

Riding: Natily is a good educator however doesn't use all methods of teaching, Becky is also a good educator and uses all of the methods of teaching. Natily uses verbal guidance and manual guidance, however doesn't use visual guidance. Becky uses all three manual, visual and verbal guidance. They both teach new skills however Becky was teaching me to ride, and Natily is teaching me to perfect skills to make me become from an intermediate level rider to an advanced level rider.
Trampolining: Good role model - looks and acts professional, wears club kit, stands and talks professionally, uses correct English, leads by example. Bad role model - canceled sessions, didn't get cover, unorganised, not dressed appropriately.

Hockey: Rob is not really looked up to be imitated, but he is an example. (not to look like but to act like), He is professional. He is approachable (not just sport, anything) He wears Huish tracksuit (looks professional) He has good posture (does not slouch) He speaks correctly, doesn’t use slang. He is not a role model (he was a smoker) bad influence. He acted professional, but too professional to be approachable. Looks smart, got tracksuit on. Used the odd swear word.

Riding: Natily is a great role-model , she has won many competitions. She is professional and always looks the part. She never uses foul language and is a qualified AI (assistant instructor). For me to get the best out of our lessons she uses professional arena and courses. She is kind and willing to use her own time to help. Becky is not a great role-model, She never looks professional, has a short fuse, swears and makes you the rider feel like you shouldn’t be there.
Trampolining: Good friend - right balance, has fun, approachable, still fly concentrated on getting best out of you and wants you to train your hardest. Bad friend - more fun than training hard, messing around more than training.

Hockey: He is a friend, He is good at knowing what people like and don’t like (helps run sessions well) He can help different individuals. (adapt) Rob coaching 16-18 year olds and he treats them right. He knows where the line is. Right mix of coach and friend (gets the most out of people). He acted to professional to be a friend. Did not get to know people well enough. He sometimes did not treat people right because he coachins 13 – 18 year olds. He knows where the line is. More of a coach than a friend.

Riding:Natily is a similar age to me meaning that we have similar personalities. We ride together a lot, she is a family friends as well as being my coach. She is always on the ball and she worked with me breaking in horses. There we built a working friendship. Becky is not a good friend; firstly yelling at an 8 year old to the point of making them cry is not friendly. She decreased my motivation, she was a lot older than me then and I saw her as a teacher not a friend.

Trampolining: Good innovator - all sessions different, had lots of fun, crazy challenges, new links. Bad innovator - set plan for every session, same 1/2 hour warm up every session and conditioning stays the same, certain aspects we work on on certain days.

Hockey: My old coach was a innovator and liked to use new drills. Introduces new methods. He uses advanced practices. He will make a special drill depending on who you are. Rob is not an innovator. Rarely introduces new methods. He uses standard practices.Even if he needs to do a specialised striker drill he will do a whole team drill.

Riding: Both Natily and Becky were good innovators , Natily used different ways of making my body shift weight from one side to the other, and Becky used innovative ways of keeping my position right and heals down ect…
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (professional conduct)
Trampolining: Good professional conduct - acts professionally and expects us too, sign a form agreeing with rules and expectations, go to competitions on mini bus, full club kit, behaves sensibly expects us too as well, wear leotard and do conditioning at squad sessions. Bad professional conduct - wear what we wanted, made own way to competitions, sometimes condition others not, disorganised.

Hockey: He is professional. He does have some fun with the team every now and then. He treats us like our age (like adults) Important.
Makes students act professional. He is very professional. Rarely had fun with the team. He sometimes treated us a bit like children, due to his teaching variety. He makes students act professionally.

Riding:Natily and Becky were completely different types of trainers Natily was very professional, she would use technological words that I understood. Becky would shout and swear meaning she wasn’t professional at all.
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (knowledge of coaching environment)
Trampolining: Good knowledge of coaching environment - measured everything to see if it was high enough and had enough space, worked out how to fit everything in. Bad knowledge of coaching environment - didn't put the equipment out, if we needed anything we asked the leisure centre.

Hockey: He always seems to know the environment we are in. He knows who is coming to training. If something is in the way he will get people to help him move it (a goal). He is an experienced hockey player and has coached teams on a number of pitches. My other coach is the same.

Riding: When training with Natily she will know how to react to different types of weather for example if it’s raining placing studs and a stud girth on my horse. She can manipulate courses to test my ability.
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (health and safety)
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (legal obligations)
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (organisation)
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (communication)
Comparison of coaches/ and sports (time management)
Trampolining: Good health and safety - checks all equipment, makes sure every trampoline has a mat, makes sure everyone is warmed up properly, carries first aid kit, good at catching and matting. Bad health and safety - didn't deal with any of it, go to leisure centre staff if anything happened, didn't check equipment, not always qualified coaches.

Hockey: He was exceptional at this. I used to see him check to pitch or sports hall before we used to get changed. He always has a first aid on hand. He always has a folder with the first aid box with emergency procedures in. This is a weak point. I have never seen him do a risk assessment of the pitch or equipment. He always carries first aid encase of emergency. He know some of the emergency procedures, like the address.

Riding: Both Becky and Natily were brilliant at health and safety, this is because horses are very unpredictable meaning that anything can set them off and cause a life or death situation for the rider and horse. Both of them carried out risk assessments, they both has a qualified AI training, and both carried first aid with them.
Trampolining: Good legal obligations - him and all coaches have correct coaching qualification for moves they are teaching, always someone in the hall who is qualified, everyone in club has correct insurance, mini bus to competitions, all coaches have a DBS check and do a first aid course every 3 years.

Hockey: He is aware of legal responsibilities, He gives appropriate advise, As a teacher at a big college I am sure he has appropriate insurance. He never uses inappropriate transport, always a minibus.
I am sure he has been DBS checked and trained in first aid.

Riding: Both Becky and Natily have to abide by laws, and both of them had certificates and proper insurances to cover their self’s and the rider. However the rider will have to insure their own horse. They both were DBS (CRB) checked and both has to show the certificates when asked.
Trampolining: Good organisation - plans session, talks to all coaches makes sure everyone is on the same wavelength, videos of warm up and conditioning on his laptop so everyone knows what to do, got us to learn warm ups and conditioning so we don't waste time. Bad organisation - never planned a session, unorganised when entering competitions, no notice.

Hockey: He always has a planned session. He always knows how long we have got and if it is cut short. He knows where the equipment is. He knows what equipment he needs. He can always adapt if something unexpected happens. Not always planned a session. He is not always aware of how long we have. Does not know what equipment we need all the time. Gives us responsibility with equipment. He can adapt if he is un organised (not enough cones).

Riding: Both coaches were organised they both carried out session plans to make sure that they knew how the session would go as I was riding, they both would make sure that the equipment was set and ready so I wasn’t wasting time.
Trampolining: Good communication - stands and talks properly, use gestures and demonstrates what he wants, does it exactly how he wants you to do it, uses correct English, doesn't make jokes. Bad communication - wouldn't always use good English, make jokes, talk quietly, bad body language.

Hockey: He is a good communicator overall. He has good body language. He sometimes looks unhappy which effects other people (even their game). Gives praise. When we do something good he will cheer and wave his arms. Same as my old coach.

Riding: Natily was good at communication she used correct technical terms, she would always praise me and she was enthusiastic she would use body language and verbal communication to show me what she wanted out of my riding. Becky would always confuse me and she would get cross, because I was young I would miss interpret what she was asking me to do.
Trampolining: Good time management - start dead on time, warm up exactly half an hour, do certain things for a certain amount of time, everything set up ready. Bad time management - take ages to warm up hardly any bouncing time, Rotate trampolines so different amount of time with coaches.

Hockey: He was always on time, it was unusual he is late. He plans the drills well and this allows people to have fun and get something out of it. He tells us his session plan at the beginning so we know what we are going to do for and how long. He has a varied time management (sometimes on time sometimes late). He never gets the drills the right length for people to get something out of it. He never says how long we are going to do a drill for he just sets it up and moves on when he thinks we are ready.

Riding: Natily was brilliant with time management, she would make sure that I would get the whole hour lesson as well as leaving time at the end of lesson to set up for the next lesson coming. Becky would always be on site however more often than not she would run over the allowed time for a lesson because she wouldn’t keep on top of time.
Being a sports leader it is essential that you are a good motivator this is because, if the team you’re leading isn’t motivated they won’t turn up to training sessions, and/ or they won’t be motivated to try their hardest when playing games. As a motivator you should understand the psychology behind motivation. There is extrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic is self-motivation and extrinsic motivation is external sources to encourage the player for example a trophies. A good sports leader will try and encourage the player with making the session’s fun, using external games/ competitions to keep his/her players on the ball and motivated to turn up.
Thank you for watching Chloe's, Adam's and Imogen's Prezi
Sports leader distinction - motivator
Sports leader distinction - guardian
Sports leader distinction - Teacher
Sports leader distinction - organiser
Sports leader distinction - Knowledge of sports skills
Sports leader distinction - Understanding the mental needs of participants
Sports leader distinction - understanding the physical needs of participants
Sports leader distinction - Knowledge of rules and laws
Sports leader distinction - patients
Sports leader distinction - consistent
Sports leader distinction - approachable
Sports leader distinction - empathy
• It is your job to look after them.
• You are the most responsible person.
• Loco Parentis
• Your duty as a leader is to make sure no one gets hurt during your session.
• The definition of “guardian”
• To be a good leader…
• You can’t be too nice.
• Guardian and organiser are linked.
• You need to make it fun
• You should treat people like your own child.
• This is an important asset that a sports leader is a teacher
• A leader will not be as specific as a teacher or coach.
• Use basic things like running, jumping, throwing and catching from other sports and bring them across.
• Being a teacher is not a job to make boring
• Make it fun and change it around.
• You might not be there to improve specific skill
• Knowing your participants is key.
• Their concentration levels might be better in different situations.
• This is linked to being an organiser.
• A leader has to be an organiser if they want to do a good job.
• A leader must be prepared for the session they are about to run.
• Plan the activity.
• You should be planning about a week before your session.
• Bad planning.
• You should be able to plan for, health and screen questions, personal details, player’s previous sporting experience, player ability and player’s physical attributes.
• If you are not prepared to do these things you will fail at being a good leader
• Being a motivator is key when you are a leader.
• They will not turn up to your sessions if you can’t motivate them.
• They will not be motivated to train very hard.
• You are taking people from all sports.
• They might not enjoy this one sport that you are leading.
• You need to know what the children want as a motivator
• Intrinsic reasons?
• Extrinsic reasons?
• To increase participation you try to make the sessions as fun as possible.
• This will keep players motivated.
Need to get to know everyone and treat everyone individually.
Use positive reinforcement and build their confidence so they are willing to participate in the session.
Say well done and other encouraging things and avoid using degrading comments such as comparing one child to another.
A bad sports leader will ignore the mental needs of participants.
Not thinking of everyone as individuals and making people feel uncomfortable.
Skill development etc. to make the lower level players feel better about playing the game and they would enjoy the session a lot more.
Need to know what difficulty to make the session.
This is because if they get the difficulty of the session wrong no improvement will take place from the participant.
High ability group who play for outside clubs and you get them to practice throwing and catching they are going to be bored and start messing around.
They will not take anything from the session.
Long term they could end up quitting the sport completely.
If the leader understood the ability of the group and tailored the sessions to challenge that, the participants would be improving and when they went back to their club they would be better.
You will need to lead general sporting sessions, nothing specific to one sport.
This means it is vital to have a good knowledge of sports skills.
Having experience yourself means you will understand the skill properly and know what you are asking others to do.
You will be able to help them better when they are stuck.
If you can throw well yourself you will be able to break down the steps you take when throwing and teach your participants step by step.
By teaching them step by step you are giving them the best opportunity to be able to learn how to execute the skill with correct technique.
Makes it easier to correct.
Without a good knowledge of sports skill you will not be able to give pointers or stop a player when they are using bad technique.
This will have a negative effect on their performance which will slow down their progress.
You must have a good knowledge of the rules and laws.
This is so you allow the participants to play the game properly and fairly.
A good leader will be able to call any mistakes and start play again fairly.
Players will improve because they will learn how to play the game properly and if they were to take the sport any further they would be expected to know and abide by the rules.
It makes if fair for everyone so everyone feels like they are being treated as equals.
They will enjoy the game more and keep motivation to try their best.
If the leader didn’t have a good knowledge of the rules and laws players would get frustrated as there would be no consistency in the game.
They would feel like the result was unfair and they deserved to win.
Their motivation to try their best go down. This would make their performance worse and they would be bored, not show respect and start messing around instead of trying.
Empathising with your student happens over a period of time.
You will have to take this time to get to know your students and for your students to get to know you.
This will build a strong working relationship where the student will feel comfortable opening up.
You should put yourself in the student’s shoes and try to understand why they feeling the way they are.
Your using empathy by listening to their problems.
They could tailoring their sports session or allow them to skip training for that day.

Tailoring sports session
Showing sympathy
Good listening skills

Impatient leader’s causes distress
Calm approach
Different abilities
Be friendly
Easy to talk to
Know where to draw the line
Treat everyone the same
Make rules
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