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19th Century American Education Reform
Transcript of 19th Century American Education Reform
Shane McGrath From the beginning... "The Father of the Common School" - Secretary of MA Board of Ed. in 1837 - Basic schooling for all children - Promoted political stability and social harmony -pushed for professionalization of teachers “Education…is the great equalizer of the conditions of men, the balance-wheel of the social machinery.” -Horace Mann -increased amount of instructional time -more funding for teachers' salaries and school construction Pre-Reform -Students were taught by parents out of the Bible -Blacks were forbidden to learn how to read and write in the South (rarely in the North) -New England maintained the highest literacy rate -Republicans were sold on the idea that uneducated citizens could ruin the political structure Taxes vs. Opportunity -Wealthy families funded most public schools -Strong support for tax-supported education in 1830's -Teachers were ill-trained and paid poorly -Curriculum was non-existent 3 R's = Readin', Ritin', and Rithmatic! -Schools were inefficient in their efforts Catherine Beech (1800-1878) Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) John Hughes (1797-1864) Led movement for denominational schools for the Irish Catholic immigrants Pushed for women's education in mid 1800's Wanted raised educational and social statuses for African-Americans -Golden age of American literature -Literary, philosophical, and political movement >Influenced by German romantic philosophers and new liberalization -Reinforced the ideas of self-reliance, self-culture and self-discipline -In 1852-53, MA & NY passed compulsory school attendance laws -John Hopkins University (1876) and the University of Chicago (1890) were established >through the flourishing research of social and nature sciences -In Kalamazoo, MI, established that local property taxes go toward high schools (1874) >Only 2.5% of American high-school aged youth graduated from a secondary school as of 1880 -Vassar College (1865) established (1st successful all-womens college) >untrained teachers at home or in small shacks -Attendance laws -tax supported public schools -State curriculum regulations -schooling opportunities for ALL American children regardless of socioeconomic status >women, African-Americans, the poor -federal educational standards -tenure teachers (1886) "Old Union High School" Kalamazoo's first high school (1858) One of the first schoolhouses in MA Emma Willard - Women's rights activist along with education -founded the first school for women's higher education >The Troy Female Seminary in Troy, NY (1814) -(interestingly) was NOT a supporter of women's suffrage "We [women] are primary existences...not the satellites of men."
-Emma Willard -co-founded a second women's school in Athens, Greece "A Great American" Henry Barnard "The Educationalist" 1837-39: was a member of the CT House of Reps -oversaw educational bills passed for common schools 1845-49: First commissioner of schools in Rhode Island -Established the Rhode Island Teachers Institute in 1845 1867-70: became the first U.S. Commissioner of Education >established the Bureau of Education 1855-81: Editor of the "American Journal of Education "Education Reform of the 19th Century" By the APUSH Kids