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Transcript of Religion Presentation
Religion Religion in the
United States 90% of the United States population claim preference to some religious group
43% of adults attend a church or synagogue in an average week.
Religion has a huge effect on the country, despite one's personal beliefs. Religious groups can be hugely influential in an education system, although schools should be secular.
Dominant religious groups can often determine the moral teaching in a school in a given area.
The U.S. Supreme Court has a history of ruling against actions promoting specific religious intentions in schools. In 2006, 57% of Americans said that their religious beliefs were very important to them, and 27% reported their religion to be fairly important.
This data suggests that religion is important to every four out of five Americans. The First Amendment Religion can influence:
A school's curriculm, textbooks, and other assigned reading.
A class based on the teacher's personal belief system, which in turn changes the way in which the class is taught. Religion in Daily Life Religion directly or indirectly affects each person in society; whether or not an individual is an actively practicing follower of an organized religion, each person in society is affected in a variety of ways. Religion affects our government because the men and women that we elect bring their personal faith and values with them when they enter office; politicians are affected by their loyalties to their religion in their decision making process. Whether we like it or not, religion is intricately woven into the development of our nation, and is daily present in the decision making process. Religious diversity in the United States is widespread; while some states are more "religious" than others, religion still touches every state in some way. The First Amendment, since its ratification in 1791, remains one of the most important amendments to the Constitution to this day. It insures each individual the freedom of speech, press, assembly, and petition, as well as prohibiting the establishment of a national religion. This clause, called the "Establishment Clause", means that our government cannot show any religion or non-religion preferencial treatment; ultimately, this clause means that America's government cannot be influenced by any one religion or lack thereof. Though this Amendment can be highly controversial, it protects each American's "inherent" right to freedom; it's inclusion in our Constitution makes the United States unique. Contrary to popular belief, the term "separation of church and state" is not actually included anywhere in our Constitution. Rather, the separation is included by omission; because the First Amendment does not allow for any religion to take precedence, it is understood that there is a separation between our government and any religious organization or affiliation. The separation of church and state is often contested; cases have been brought to the Supreme Court fighting the constitutionalism or issues such as prayer in schools and at graduations, the posting of the 10 Commandments in classroooms, and the teaching creationism versus Darwin's evolution. This is a video about the real definition of separation of church and state, and what it really means when it comes to our government. Although the cases brought to court concerning separation of chuch and state often rule in support of the First Amendment, the separation is a relatively fine line; we still swear under oath on Bibles and we still mention God during the Pledge of Allegiance, which remains a source of opposition, but for the most part our government consistently supports the separation. However, the truth is that it is really impossible to satisfy everyone; there is cause for anger on both sides. While religious groups want our nation to still be "under God", secular groups are fighting the inclusion of religion at every turn. The middle ground is a gray area; how much is too much? Adding education to the mix makes the separation even more difficult; how can public schools separate and differentiate what should be taught, and what should be left for the parents to teach? The separation of church and state is constantly under contest; while there is no way to really satisfy both sides, each can be assured that their beliefs are firmly supported by their government. Content Rationale: Additional Resources: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8Hy306pGmU ~An informative and interesting video about what the Separation of Church and State really means for our government and our freedom: Each group is responsible for constructing a short paper that explains 1). Your content choices and why 2). Your content omissions and why 3). Your lesson delivery/platform/formatting choices and the whys behind them 4). Who did what, when, where, how and why 5). What challenges and successes you faced, as individuals or as a group. You might decide to write this paper in segments (one section for each group member that addresses each of these, according to individual group members), or you might decide to write this paper according to each of the numbers, 1-5, above, as a whole group. Madeline:
I chose to focus on the Religion chapter because I've always been really fascinated with both the concept of religion and the ways in which it can potentially influence society. Religion has a way of influencing more than we really consciously realize; people hold their faith close to their heart, and their actions usually follow based on what their belief system is. It's impossible to ignore religion; we can't ever pretend that it doesn't matter, because even in its abscense it is effecting society. I have to give Teresa a lot of the credit for the finding of this website and the division of the topics; she did a great job organizing all of us! The Prezi website is entirely new to me, but I think it's a really awesome way to present and organize information- it's sleek as well as interesting, and different than anything I've ever used previously. I chose to focus on the first section concerning Religion and Education, the First Amendment, and the Separation of Church and State; in high school I remember always being really interested in where we draw the line between religion and government, and how that affects education. I used the book as a resource, as well as researched online for other websites and videos that were applicable. Other Denominations and Religious Groups In addition to the four major faiths in the United States, educators can encounter other religions.They include Christian religious groups, which do not fall into the four major faiths. Latter-Day Saints The church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints or LDS Church (Mormon Church), is a restorationist Christian religion and the largest denomination founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. in New york in 1830. There are currently over 14.1 million members of the LDS Church worldwide. Despite ethnicity, race, and culture, religion is usually the primary focus of what individuals identify with in society.
Understanding an individual's religous background is the first step when understanding an individual.
Educators need to be careful not to have their own religous identity and opinions interfere with making an equal opportunity for the classroom. Individual Religious Identity Eastern Orthodoxy Testing the First Amendment The Eastern Orthodox is less well known in this country because its members from Syria, Greece, Armenia, Russia, and the Ukraine, only immigrated during the last century. Many say that it's very similar to the pre-Vatican II Catholic church. The actual and reported memeberships in Eastern Orthodox Churches in the U.S vary considerably of approximately 4,000,000. Christian Science and Unitarian Universalists Examples of Supreme Court Rulings Regarding Religion, the First Amendmen, and the Separation of Church and State:
Engel v. Vitale-The Court ruled any type of prayer is unconstitutional government sponsorship of religion.
Abington School District v. Schempp-Bible reading over the school intercom was unconstitutional. (Murray v. Curlett-The court found it was unconsitutional to force a child to participate in Bible readings.)
Epperson v. Arkansas-A State statute banning teaching of evolution was unconstitutional. A state cannot set a course of studey in order to promote religious point of view.
Stone v. Graham-The Court ruled that the posting of the Ten Commandments in schools was uncostitutional.
Wallace v. Jaffree-The State's moment of silence in a public school statute was unconstitutional.
Edwards v. Aquillard-The Court found it was unconstitutional for the state to require teaching of "creation of silence".
Lee v. Weisman-It is unconstitutional for a school district to provide any clergy to perform prayer at both elementary and secondary schools graduation. Oaths have been made in Bibles which end with the phrase "so help me God."
U.S. coins and currency state "In God We Trust."
The Pledge of Allegiance includes the words, "under God."
Complete separation of church and state would have a huge effect on social-religious life.
Total separation would mean no direct or indirect aid to religious groups, no tax-free status, no government-paid chaplains, no religious holidays, no blue laws, and so forth.
There are religious groups who place different emphases on the need for education and the expectations of what children should be taught. For example: The Amish usually want to remove their children from schooling after they have completed the eighth grade so they can work and contribute to their families. Controversial Issues! Christian Science is less common recognized, with less than 1/2 million members. This faith believes that all everything God creates is good. They rely on the power of God to heal rather than traditional medicine. They believe that the cause and cure of illness is spiritual. Some of their habits include exercise, good nutrition, and astaining from alcohol and tobacco; many are vegetarians. Unitarian universalist is a church that connotes liberalism to most people. Some of their members have been U.S. presidents such as William Howard Taft, Thomas Jeffereson, John Adams, and John Quincy Adams. Unitarians are often found School Prayer
Despite the 1962 and 1963 Supreme Court decisions, conservative groups have persisted their efforts to revive school prayer.
The law is now: a voluntary prayer law, not a private prayer in school.
Any teacher or student can have his or her own private prayer of thanks before the noon meal or meditate or pray between classes and before and after school. School Vouchers
Vouchers are to provide parents with a choice of schools for their children, public or private.
Secretary of Education, Rod Paige (in the first George W. Bush administration), said that vouchers would help low-income parents and children to escape low performing schools (Gordon, 2000).
Funds for vouchers range from $2,500-$5,000.
Voucher initiatives are strongly supported by religious factions, especially those who send their children to private religious schools.
Opponents of vouchers argue that will take funds away from public schools, majority won't cover full tuition at private schools, and transportation can be a huge problem. Censorship
Censor is usually a concerned citizen who sincerely finds ways to improve society or protect children.
Censorship may take place to forward one's own religious or political agenda (American Library Association, 2004).
Censorship of textbooks, library books, and other learning materials in education has become another major issue for the Religious Right and other groups.
Showing parents the curriculum will support rather than conflict with basic family issues-may help prevent censorship issues. Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning over more than 3,000 years.
This religion is based off 13 principles of Faith, which is shown in the youtube video.
Along with Islam, these tow religions both claim to have arisen from the patriarch Abraham
The Holy Book for Hebrews or Jewish people is the Torah or Talmud. Secular Humanities
Secular humanism has been a direct target for censors.
It is respect for human beings rather than a belief in the supernatural.
It's objectives include the full development of every human being, the universal use of the scientific method, affirmation of the preciousness and difnity of the individual person, personal freedom combined with social responsibility, and the fulfillment through the development of ethical and creative living (Robinson, 2006c).
Humanism is not an organized religion like Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, etc. However, some view it as a religion.
Often books and materials viewed as Secular Humanism lead to censorship.
Teachers should be well known of their climate within the community before introducing new materials, teaching strategies, amd books. Guidelines for Teaching about Religion 10 suggestions for teaching about religion
By Warren Nord, director, Program in Humanities and Human Values, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Religion is important; a central purpose of liberal education is to teach students about the place of religion in history and culture. The religious significance of curricular material (historical events and themes, literary texts, etc.) is an important criterion to use in selecting what is to be covered.
Many events, movements, and texts are open to conflicting interpretations (both secular and religious). Teachers should be sensitive to religious ways of understanding them.
The First Amendment requires that teachers be neutral regarding religion and religious ways of understanding the world; they are neither to promote nor denigrate religion.
I would argue that the spirit of the First Amendment also requires that teachers be fair in their treatment of religion. Indeed, we are morally and intellectually obligated to be fair in dealing with any important, controversial matter. In an ideal world this means:
Taking each of the (major) parties to the conflict seriously.
Letting each party speak for itself through primary source material or guest speakers.
Providing sufficient time and context so that positions are intelligible.
Pursuing emotional as well as intellectual meaning (through literature, drama, art, film, etc.).
Fairness does not require equal time.
There should be no official conclusions. (This does not mean that a teacher should not share her own views.) Students should not be required to agree with the teacher in class or on tests. It is often best to ask not what students think, but what various religious groups think: Why do liberals believe that the Bible is not inerrant? Why do fundamentalists believe that abortion is wrong?
That there are no official conclusions does not mean that there are no right answers. Neither fairness nor the First Amendment require us to embrace relativism. Education is an initiation of an ongoing discussion about the truth.
Particular sensitivity must be shown to children who come from minority faiths, ethnic backgrounds, etc.
Age is important; critical thinking and the ability to confront ambiguity and cultural conflict come with maturity.
If matters are very controversial, parents should be informed and teachers should consider instituting an excusal policy.
Some things may be too controversial. Guidelines courtesy of:
http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org The Fairfax County Schools in Virginia created a handout titled, Religion and Public Schools: The Path Between Too Much and Too Little. Some of those guidelines listed are:
The school may sponsor the study of religion, but may not sponsor the practice of religion.
he school may expose students to all religious views, but may not impose any particular view.
The school's approach to religion s one of instruction, not one of indoctrination.
The function of the school is to educate about all religions, not to convert to any one religion.
The school should study what all people believe, but should not teach a student what to believe.
The school should study what all people believe, but should not teach a student what to believe.
The school should strive for student awareness of all religions, but should not press for student acceptance of any one religion.
The school should seek to inform the student about various beliefs, but should not seek to conform him or her to any one believe. (Becker, undated) •The Holy Book for this religion is the Qur’an
•If you practice Islam you are known as a Muslim
•There are two main denomination of this religion; the Sunni and the Shia
•The Sunni are 80% of the Muslim world population, while the Shia are the other 20%
•Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last prophet of God; He was a trade who later turned around his life and became a political, religious and military leader.
•Sufism is a mystical-ascetic approach to Islam that seeks to find divine love and knowledge though direct and personal experience with Allah. Allah = God Buddhism •Often referred to as “the world’s oldest living major religion” and is the 3rd largest religion in the world behind Christianity and Islam.
•The Holy books for this religion are; Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Mahabharata and Ramayana.
•Formed on very diverse traditions and to this day has no one single founder.
•A large body of texts is classified as Hindu, divided into Sruti “revealed” and Smriti “remembered”
•Known to the world as Hindus http://www.teach-nology.com/teachers/religous_education/in_public_schools/ ~This site is all about what is acceptable in the school system concerning education, and also provides extra links to other informational sites: http://www.afa.net/Blogs/BlogPost.aspx?id=2147486481 ~This site has a list of the top five Supreme Court Cases that have changed how religion influences school: ~This site has tons of information and facts about how to teach religion. It also shares many Supreme Court cases regarding religion in education. http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/rel_liberty/publicschools/topic.aspx?topic=teaching_about_religion ~This is another site to guide teachers into the right direction when it comes to religion in the classrooms. http://www.freedomforum.org/publications/first/teachersguide/teachersguide.pdf Teresa:
I chose Religion as my Project 2 chapter because I feel like it is a topic that is often at the focus of controversy. Going into the field of education, it is important to embrace the different cultures and religions of your classroom. I wanted to learn the different cases and laws that are behind teaching religion in the classroom. I remember when I was in elementary school it wasn't a big deal to do a moment of silence or say "under God" during the Pledge of Allegiance.The issues and controversies regarding religion are never going to go away unless we understand each religion and their ways.When it came to deciding how to deliver our information, I thought Prezi would be a very fun and inventive way for our group to work. I learned about this website in my technology class and thought it was amazing when I saw the presentation! It was a good way for each of the group members to be creative besides just doing a Power Point. We split up the project into 5 parts so we would each have an equal amount of work for the project.It was basically going through the chapter and finding the most important facts we thought our classmates would need to know. Some of the challenges were not being able to get into contact with all of our group members. The successes were being able to agree on the subjects chosen and creating a wonderful presentation! Religion and Gender Religion can have a profound influence on the gender roles and responsibilities in religious organizations. In more conservative religions, the role of women is often more limited; men generally have a more dominant role. In the Roman Catholic church, certain Islamic groups, the Mormon church, and some Protestant churches women cannot reach the highest levels of leadership. Religion and Homosexuality One of the most controversial issues in most religious institutions and organizations. Even within religions there are differing opinions; each religion varies considerably despite their common belief systems. Every school is responsible for providing a safe learning environment for every student, regardless of student's sexuality. Hinduism Judaism •Known as Buddhist
•Believe Siddhartha Guatama (known as Buddha) is an awakened or enlightened teacher who shared his insights to help sentient beings end suffering & escape what is seen as the cycle of rebirth and suffering.
•2 major branches of this religion; Theravada, the oldest and most widespread of the two, and Mahayana.
•There are about 350 to 500 million Buddhists around the world.
•Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path of freeing yourself, better known as liberation.
•This religion is based on Three Jewels: the Buddha, the Dharma (teachings) and the Sangha (community). “Taking refuge in the triple gem.” Islam