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Marsupials

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megan kellock

on 4 April 2014

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Transcript of Marsupials

Marsupials
Wombat
Marsupials Characteristics
Commonly located in Australia
Live in several different biomes
rain forests, deserts, grasslands, bushlands
Do not have long gestation times like placental mammals do
Covered in hair
Known for pouches
Koala

upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Cutest_Koala.jpg
Kangaroo

Bushlands
transit-port.net/Galleries/Australian.Bushlands/images/D'Entrecastreaux-NP-I.jpg
Grasslands
blueplanetbiomes.org/images/grasslands_lrg.jpg
Desert
valtorta.org/images/desert.jpg
Rain Forest
www1.american.edu/ted/ICE/images5/mp_junglee.jpg
Phascolarctos cinereus
koalainfo.com/mother-koala/koala-leaves-joey.jpg
Taxonomic Classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Diprotodontia
Family: Phascolarctidae
Genus: Phascolarctos
Species: P. cinereus
Koala Characteristics
Arboreal (tree dwelling)
Herbivorous (plant eating)
Have a pouch
Small brain size
Highly developed sense of smell
Highly developed hearing
Individual fingerprints
Rough palms and soles
Muscular thighs
Koala Characteristics
Populations only occur when there is a suitable habitat
Socially stable populations occur only when there are primary tree species present.
Live in societies
Need to have large living areas
Use many different sounds and signals to communicate
Mainly use Eucalyptus trees
www.hedweb.com/animimag/koalagaz.jpg
Eucalyptus Tree
Macropus rufus
upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Kangaroo_and_joey03.jpg
Taxonomic Classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Diprotodontia
Family: Macropodidae
Genus: Macropus
Species: Macropus rufus
Kangaroo Characteristics
Planet's largest marsupial
Undergo most development inside an exterior pouch
Up to 6 feet tall and weigh 200 pounds
Herbivorous
Strong backbone, tail and hind legs
Long feet and short arms
Four Chamber heart
Kangaroo Characteristics
Inhabit the open areas
Open woodlands and forests
After sundown they seek out grassy areas to feed
Kangaroos feed in the morning and evening, and sometimes in groups
Average group is 2-4 members
Female gives birth to one joey at a time
Gestation is around 38 days
They move by hopping on their hind legs
1.bp.blogspot.com/-TxsjqpumrD0/Uc5zGQQuBzI/AAAAAAAAMNc/xdNTwGzD8-Q/s1600/Hopping-Kangaroos_jpg-charters-towers.jpg
Vombatidae
3.bp.blogspot.com/-9sx7JjIElME/UtmRCH7h3nI/AAAAAAAAA34/mp20eXYZRbI/s1600/Wombats-Facts-Photos.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Diprotodontia
Family: Vombatidae
Genus: Vombatus
Species: Vombatus ursinus
Taxonomic Classification
Wombat Characteristics
Short legged
Small, stubby tail
World's largest burrowing animal
Very muscular
Powerful shoulders help them dig
Stocky
Short, muscular neck, and a large, broad, flattened head
Poor eye site
Good sense of smell
Good hearing
Short gestation period
Wombat Characteristics
Temperate forest-covered areas
Often found in the mountainous areas
Dig their main shelters on slopes above creeks
Freshwater Habitat
Less active than during warmer months
Leaves the burrow after sunset and begins to graze
Solitary
Spend around 2/3 of their life in their burrow
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Chordata
Class:
Mammalia
Order:
Diprotodontia
Family: Phascolarctidae
Genus: Phascolarctos
Species: P. cinereus
Koala
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Diprotodontia
Macropodidae
Macropus
Macropus rufus
Kangaroo
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Diprotodontia
Vombatidae
Vombatus
Vombatus ursinus
Wombat
This shows how similar and related the Koala, Kangaroo, Wombat, and Tasmanian Devil are. However, the Tasmanian Devil starts to be different at Order while the other three start at Family.
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Dasyuromorphia
Dasyuridae
Sarcophilus
Sarcophilus harrisii
Tasmanian Devil
Systematics
Evidence of
Evolution
Embryology
Koala
Kangaroo
As you can see, these two animals look a little similar when they are in their early developmental stages of life but end up looking very different from each other.
Fossil Record
Some analysis show fossils formed about 5- 13 million years ago during Australia's transition from a warm, tropical climate to an arid climate
Fossil Record
Sinodelphys
oldest known ancestor to kangaroos, koalas, possums, and wombats
125 million years old
Ancestors of marsupials split from those of placental mammals during the Jurassic period due to lack of soft tissues
They now have 4 pairs of molar teeth in each jaw when they used to have no more than 3
Evolution is evident by looking at their fossil record because since marsupials are herbivores, they have smaller teeth and they also gained a pouch to carry their young in because they have short gestational periods.
Fossil Record
Fossil Record
Petrosals of Djarthia murgonensis
Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology
Those images show that they are some similarities which include;

Short arms
Pouches, which didn't always exist, they were developed over a long period of time
Powerful legs
Claws
Small eyes
Large noses

This proves that evolution happened because they have similar structures and functions that were passed down
Phylogenetic Tree
Chromosomal Analysis
Chromosome Count
Kangaroo
Koala
Wombat
12
16
40
When you compare these 3 marsupials by their chromosomal count, it shows that the Kangaroo and Koala are the two most closely related animals since the wombat has a much larger number than the two. This shows that the animals that were once so similar have evolved over time.
Darwin's Evolution Theories
Natural selection can be related to the evolution of marsupials because they pass on traits that will be best suited for the environment that they are living in to their young. An example would be that the kangaroos need strong legs to be able to survive, so the right amount of muscle gets passed down to all of its offspring. Also, if the marsupials main source of food would get cut off, they would have to adapt to a different diet and then their off spring would have the better suited diet for the habitat. This is what keeps the population going.
One theory that Charles Darwin had was called Natural Selection. This is when organisms that are better adapted to their environment are the ones that live longer and produce more offspring which have the traits they need.
Sources
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mammal/marsupial/marsupial.html
https://www.savethekoala.com/about-koalas/physical-characteristics-koala
https://www.savethekoala.com/about-koalas/koala-habitat
https://www.savethekoala.com/about-koalas/taxonomy
http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2007/michaels_kell/classification_information.htm
http://animals.pawnation.com/description-kangaroo-3363.html
http://www.wombania.com/wombats/wombat-classification.htm
https://www.google.com/search?q=wombat+scientific+name&oq=wombat+sci&aqs=chrome.1.69i57j0l5.5979j0j7&sourceid=chrome&espv=210&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8
http://www.wombania.com/wombats/wombat-physical-characteristics.htm
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-213X/8/65/figure/F1?highres=y
http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/images/5/5c/Tammar_wallaby_limb_development_01.jpg
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/12/1215_031215_oldestmarsupial.html
http://www.livescience.com/38681-new-australia-fossils-found.html
http://www.palaeontologyonline.com/articles/2012/fossil-focus-marsupials/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marsupial#Evolution
http://geoffshaw.com/tammar/?Marsupials:Marsupial_evolution_and_Biogeography

Megan Kellock
Phylogenetic Tree Explanation
The phylogenetic tree showed that marsupial around over 80 million years ago and the group all started from one animal which then evolved into different marsupials. It began in the cretaceous time period and over a long period of time, ten main groups of marsupials formed. They are the didelphid opossums, caenolestid opossums, dromiciops, marsupial moles, daysurids, bandicoots, honey possums, possums and gliders, koala and wombats, and the kangaroo family. Without the one marsupial that was around over 80 million years ago, none of these groups of marsupials would exist today.
This tree is where the koala primarily gets its food from. It also provides nutrients and water for the Koala.
Darwin's Evolution Theories
The other theory that Charles Darwin had was called decent with modification. This refers to passing traits to offspring.
The fossil record for marsupials can support this theory because in the beginning, the first marsupial did not have a pouch but many years later, the offspring began to inherit the pouch.
This means that although they modern marsupials have newer traits, they are still related to the marsupials from the past that did not have these traits. An example is the Sinodelphys did not have a pouch because it did not inherit this trait, but the kangaroo has a pouch, and all of it's offspring will also have a pouch
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