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Depression- 4 Levels of Explanation

Stage 2 Asessment Task, Healthy Minds: Depression

Dayna Duncan

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of Depression- 4 Levels of Explanation


Basic Processes are traits which are common to all people, yet may vary dependent on the individual, this includes perception, memory and learning.
The biological level accounts for symptoms which are inherited (genetics) or occur due to a reaction in the brain or body (biochemistry).
The person level involves the individual's traits be it age, gender, or personality.
The sociocultural level covers the influence on a person by their environment, whether it be the economic standing, community or family.
'Feelings of sustained worthlessness, sadness and pessimism which involve physical changes in the brain and last more than two weeks'
You can see:
reduced pain tolerance
lowered libido
reduced appetite
loss of weight
insomnia or oversleeping
You can't see:
changed brain structure
smaller hippocampus
lowered serotonin levels
reduced level of neurotransmitters
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Transcranial Magnetic Terapy
Antidepressants (Drug Therapy)

These treatments work on a biological level, as they work by making physical changes to the brain and chemistry within.
Looking For More Information?
For more information on the symptoms, treatments and types of depression, go to:


If you are worried that you or someone close to you is suffering depression, see a local health professional, even your GP can help.
Poor concentration and memory
Reduced motivation
Reduced ability to learn
Prolonged period of grieving following a negative major life event
Reduced capacity to enjoy pleasure
Inability to control emotions such as anger, irritability and anxiety
Negativity and Pessimism
Reduced confidence
Feelings of excessive guilt
Mood swings
Substance Abuse
Those with severe depression may be at risk of suicide.
The seven warning signs of suicide are:

1. Making direct or indirect threats about committing suicide.
2. Dramatic changes in personality, mood or appearance.
3. Changes to eating & sleeping habits.
4. A dramatic drop in performance at school or work.
5. Feelings of guilt or low self esteem.
6. Saying goodbye and giving personal belongings away.
7. Withdrawing from friends and family.

If you notice any of the following signs consult a health professional immediately.

For more information on the seven warning signs of suicide go to https://www.facebook.com/Alivesuicideprevention/info

Black Dog Institute. (2013, 10 01). Depression Explained. Retrieved 02 14, 2014, from Black Dog Institute: http://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au/public/depression/depressionexplained/index.cfm

Goldberg, J. (2013, 06 25). How Different Antidepressants Work. Retrieved 02 14, 2013, from WebMD: http://www.webmd.com/depression/how-different-antidepressants-work?page=3

Hallett, M. (2000, 07 13). Transcranical Magnetic Stimulation and the Human Brain. MacMillan Magazine.

Ruckert, T. (2013, 12 11). Suicide Warning Signs. Retrieved 02 16, 2014, from Alive Suicide Depression: http://alive.cqleos.com.au/
Antisocial Behavior
Avoidance of friends and family

Interpersonal Therapy focuses on social roles and interpersonal interactions. Over a period of time the therapist will meet with the patient, usually weekly or monthly and focus on problem areas within the patients current life. The four main problem areas are unresolved grief, role disputes, role transitions and interpersonal deficits. This relates to the sociocultural level as it builds and improves relationships with others.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy is composed of two elements; cognitive reconstruction and behaviour adjustment.
Cognitive reconstruction aims to change the way people think, by challenging negative thoughts.
Behaviour adjustment teaches alternative ways of managing a situation.
Both of these therapies combine to change unhealthy thinking feeling and behaving.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy helps the patient to accept and overcome the difficulties that arise throughout life. The therapy aims to help people to move forward, by assisting with a difficult emotion, personality trait or difficulty controlling a situation. (Serani, 2011) This relates to the person level of explanation of behaviour as it alters a trait of the individual.
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