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A Tour through the Respiratory System

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Trevor Heard

on 6 April 2013

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Transcript of A Tour through the Respiratory System

The Respiratory System Respiratory Structures Nasal Cavity: Air is warmed, moistened, and filtered Pharynx: Back of throat
Common pathway for air and food Glottis: Top of Larynx
Upper part of windpipe
Covered by epiglottis when swallowing occurs Epiglottis Larynx: The "voice box" or "Adam's Apple"
Contains the vocal cords Vocal Cords: Vibrate as air is forced past, producing sound Trachea: Windpipe
Made of rings of cartilage to prevent collapsing
Lined with "Cilia" which move debris Cilia Bronchi: Singular, bronchus
Branches of the trachea
One to each lung Bronchioles: Smaller branches off the bronchi
No cartilage for support Alveoli: Singular, alveolus
Rounded ends of very small bronchioles
Area where gas exchange occurs Pleural Membranes: Covers the surface of the lungs
Double membrane
Allows the surface of the lungs to slide across the body wall easily
Seals off the thoracic cavity Thoracic Cavity: Chest cavity
From diaphragm to throat
Diaphragm: Horizontal muscle
Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity Ribs: Protects internal organs
When contact the intercostal muscles, they rise, increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity Air Passageway: Filters, Warms, Moistens Several things happen to the air on its journey to the alveoli: 1) Cleansed of debris: 2 part process a) initial cleaning by nose hairs and mucous in the nasal passageways b) secondary cleaning is done by the mucous lining and the cilia along the trachea and the bronchi (where the debris can no longer escape via the nose)
almost all material other than gases in the inhaled air will get caught in the mucous
the cilia are in constant motion, beating the debris-filled mucous upwards towards the pahrynx
when this material is detected at the back of the mouth, it is swallowed, or coughed up and spit out
Note: cilia do not filter 2) Adjusted to body temperature The more contact the air has with moist tissues that are 37 degrees C, the closer the temperature of the air to 37 degrees C by the time air reaches the alveoli, there will be no difference in temperature between the air and the surrounding tissues 3) Adjusted to 100% Humidity The air in the lungs is saturated with water
Air that is inhaled becomes saturated with water
This occurs as the air passes over the moist, mucous lined passageways Specializations of Alveoli: 1) They are very numerous: there are up to 300 million alveoli in the human lung, providing a great surface area for gas exchange 2) They are very thin walled: Alveolar walls are only one cell thick, aiding diffusion
Made up of squamous (flat) epithilial cells 3) The alveoli have a coating of lipoprotein on their inner surface: this helps maintain surface tension, preventing them from collapsing and sticking together during exhalation 4) They are supplied with stretch receptors, which are nerve endings sensitive to stretch: during inhalation, these receptors signal when the alveoli are full (stretched), and signal for exhalation to begin 5) Alveoli surfaces have a very rich blood supply from the pulmonary capillaries to ensure maximum diffusion (highly vascularized) 3 things that make the lungs very efficient at gas exchange: 1) Huge surface area 2) Only 2 cell layers separate air in lungs from the blood 3) Moisture
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