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Bone Types ,Structure & Function &Pathology

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Brenda Best

on 8 December 2013

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Transcript of Bone Types ,Structure & Function &Pathology

Each bone is connected with one or more bones and are united via a joint (only exception: hyoid bone). With the attached tendons and musculature, the skeleton acts as a lever that drives the force of movement. The inner core of bones (medulla) contains either red bone marrow (primary site of hematopoiesis) or is filled with yellow bone marrow filled with adipose tissue.
The main outcomes of bone development are endochondral and membranous forms. This particular characteristic along with the general shape of the bone are used to classify the skeletal system. The main shapes that are recognized include long, short, flat, sesamoid and irregular.

Short Bones
Short bones are defined as being approximately as wide as they are long and have a primary function of providing support and stability with little movement. Examples of short bones are the Carpals and Tarsals - the wrist and foot bones. They consist of only a thin layer of compact, hard bone with cancellous bone on the inside along with relatively large amounts of bone marrow.

Sesamoid Bones
Seasamoid bones are usually short or irregula bones,imbedded in a tendon.The most obvious example of this is the Patella(kneecap)which sits within the Patella or the Quadriceps tendon.
Irregular Bones
These are bones in the body which do not fall into any other category, due to their non-uniform shape. Good examples of these are the Vertebrae, Sacrum and Mandible (lower jaw). They primarily consist of cancellous bone, with a thin outer layer of compact bone

What is a Bone?
A bone is a somatic structure that is comprised of calcified connective tissue. Ground substance and collagen fibers create a matrix that contains osteocytes. These cells are the most common cell found in mature bone and responsible for maintaining bone growth and density. Within the bone matrix both calcium and phosphate are abundantly stored strengthening and densifying the structure.

Long Bones
Long bones are some of the longest bones in the body, such as the Femur, Humerus and Tibia but are also some of the smallest including the Metacarpals, Metatarsals and Phalanges. The classification of a long bone includes having a body which is longer than it is wide, with growth plates (epiphysis) at either end, having a hard outer surface of compact bone and a spongy inner known an cancellous bone containing bone marrow. Both ends of the bone are covered in hyaline cartilage to help protect the bone and aid shock absorbtion
Flat Bones
Flat bones are as they sound, strong, flat plates of bone with the main function of providing protection to the bodies vital organs and being a base for muscular attachment. The classic example of a flat bone is the Scapula (shoulder blade). The Sternum (breast bone), Cranium (skull), os coxae (hip bone) Pelvis and Ribs are also classified as flat bones. Anterior and posterior surfaces are formed of compact bone to provide strength for protection with the centre consisiting of cancellous (spongy) bone and varying amounts of bone marrow. In adults, the highest number of red blood cells are formed in flat bones.

Bone Types ,Structure & Function &Pathology
Diaphysis This is the long central shaft.

Epiphysis Forms the larger round ends of long bones.

Metaphysis Area between the diaphysis and epiphysis at the both ends of the bone.

Epiphyseal Plates Plates of cartilage,also known growth plates which allow the long bones to grow in length during childhood.Once we stop growing between 18 and 25 years of age the cartilage plates stop producing cartilage cells and are gradually replaced by bone.
Osteomalacia and osteoprosis are diseases mainly seen in adulthood
Bones make up the skeletal system of the human body and are responsible for somatic rigidity, storage of different micronutrients,housing boone marrow and producing red blood cells and the various froms of white blood cells,structural outline and movement.
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