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Pass Assignment

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anthony canceri

on 4 September 2012

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Transcript of Pass Assignment

By Canceri, Laulach & Duggan Dietary Guidelines Pass Assignment Dietary guidelines are set by health organizations, often government branches, who set the recommended intake of a variety of foods, beverages, nutrients and other consumable substances. In Australia, these guidelines are set by the National Health and Medical Research Council which is a sector of the government controlled Department of Health and Ageing. The dietary needs and recommendations for adolescents and adults do have many similarities but in comparison varied distinct differences. A teenager’s diet is centered on providing the correct nutrients for growth during puberty. Teenagers need a balance of different foods and plenty of activity to ensure healthy growth and weight gain. The body experiences its second fastest period of growth during puberty (after infancy) where muscles grow bigger and bones grow longer and stronger as well as the development of sexual organs and other bodily features. Everything the body needs for these rapid changes can be found in food and when combined with regular exercise is an excellent way to regulate food intake. The nourishment needed for growth comes from a wide variety of nutritious foods - cereals, vegetables, fruits, lean meats and dairy foods. Recommended Adolescent Diet The table above shows the recommended dietary intakes for children aged 4-18 as prescribed by the National Health and Medical Research Council. Adolescents are encouraged to eat:
Plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruits
Plenty of cereals, breads, rice, pasta and noodles, preferably wholegrain
Lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives e.g. tofu.
Milks, yoghurts, cheese.
Choose water as a drink
In addition, other health considerations are advised:
Limit saturated fat and moderate overall total fat intake.
Eat salty foods in moderation
Consume only moderate amounts of sugars and foods containing added sugars The new Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults is sensible advice about food and nutrition that you can trust. The Dietary Guidelines highlight the groups of foods and lifestyle patterns that promote good nutrition and health. Nutritional needs differ at different stages of life and these are reflected in the Dietary Guidelines for each individual age group from infants to the elderly. For the new-born, there is no better food than breast milk. Older children need a balance of foods to ensure good growth and development. The scales are tilted differently for adults who often need to balance eating and physical activity to prevent weight gain. For both children and adults, some principles always remain the same – the need to enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods and to ensure that food is well handled and safe to eat. Recommended Adult Diet The table here shows the recommended dietary intakes for adults aged 19+ as prescribed by the National Health and Medical Research Council. Adults are also encouraged to eat:
Plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruits
Plenty of cereals, breads, rice, pasta and noodles, preferably wholegrain
Lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives e.g. tofu.
Milks, yoghurts, cheese.
Choose water as a drink In addition, other health considerations are advised:
Limit saturated fat and moderate overall total fat intake.
Eat salty foods in moderation
Consume only moderate amounts of sugars and foods containing added sugars But also in addition are warned to:
Limit your alcohol intake if you choose to drink Peak Performance
Sports Nutrition Dietary Guidelines Fads & Fallacies Hydration Nutritional Products Nutritional Planning Weight Management Nutritional Programs Fad diets are dieting plans which become popular quickly then inevitably lose popularity. They become abandoned for several reasons including:
Found to be ineffective in weight loss
Found to be dangerous to the health of the dieter
Simply lose the interest of the public Of the three fad diets displayed the low carb initiative is the most popular and most effective in losing weight gradually. In saying this, however, the diet also has some great health issues associated with it and is not suggested by nutritionists along with both the Cabbage Soup Diet and Grapefruit Diet. None of the aforementioned diets are said to be advised by the majority of healthcare professionals and dietitians and therefore would not be recommended for any particular group of people looking at dieting. The source of the Cabbage Soup Diet has many supposed origins but has been partially accredited to the Sacred Hearts Hospital in Cleveland USA where it was said to be used to stimulate weight loss for surgery patients. The Cabbage Soup Diet diet is a drastic weight loss diet centered on the consumption of mainly cabbage; a low-calorie food for a period of 7 days and aims for the dieter to lose approximately 4.5kgs. In recent years it has been considered a short-term weight-loss diet and requires no long-term commitment.

Many medical professionals are critical of this diet for varied reasons:
Most of the weight lost is water and not fat therefore being a deceptive short term diet plan
Lacks the principal of a good diet in that it neglects the inclusion of a good balanced diet needed to sustain weight loss
- extremely high sodium (salt) content used to make the food palatable
Virtually no protein for several days at a time which can lead to the breakdown of muscles and tissue and can lead to illnesses like kwashiorkor. The grapefruit diet is a much more beneficial and safer diet than the Cabbage Soup Diet for people looking for short term weight loss. Unlike that of the Cabbage fruit diet, the Grapefruit diet has been widely tested and approved by some healthcare professionals. Summary Fads & Fallacies WHAT ARE FAD DIETS The goal of the diet plan is weight gain; to increase lean body mass (LBM) and to minimize gains in body fat. This is ONLY ONE EXAMPLE of one diet which may aid in the building of healthy weight and must be used in conjunction with regular exercise. The times listed in the table may be variable to change depending on sleeping patterns, daily agendas etc but spacing between meals should be about 2-3 hours. Adolescent Weight Gain Diet The diet is designed for an adolescent:
16 year old
178 centimeters tall
65 kilograms
Ectomorph (high metabolism and naturally slim build; difficult to gain weight)
With a maintenance calorie count of about 2,5000
Daily moderate-high level of exercise The plan will increase daily calorie intake by 25% which for the above dieter of 2, 500 calorie maintenance is 500 calories per day. If this sudden increase in food is too much for the dieter to handle, the daily increase should be staggered, increasing intake by between 50 and 100 calories per day. Protein is needed for many reasons for a person looking to gain weight. The primary reason being it aids in the building and repair of muscle tissue i.e. increasing lean muscle mass which is the goal of the diet. Carbohydrates make up the majority of the nutritional plan as they are the main source of energy to the body. They are eaten in greater proportions during breakfast as a good start to the day and in the pre-workout meal for energy during training. It is a common misconception that fat is not needed of totally bad for the body. Unsaturated fat is preferable as it contains good cholesterol whereas saturated fats contain bad cholesterol. These fats contain Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) needed to assist in the regulation of oxygen levels and assist in the function of the immune system. Fat Carbohydrates Protein Breakfast 7:30-8:00am Lunch 10:30-11:30am Dinner 6:00-7:00pm Pre-Workout An Hour Before Workout Post-Workout Immediately After Workout Exercise just as if not more important than dieting in the gain of LBM as it essential to the building of muscle tissue the type of exercise which is recommended for muscle gain are compound exercises, which are functional multi-joint movements that require and a greater hormonal response and require more than one muscle group to be performed; stimulating growth in multiple areas. Examples of compound exercises are squats, deadlifts, lunges and push-presses such as the bench press. Compound exercises should be performed at the beginning of your workout when you are fresh, since they require the most energy to execute correctly. Exercise Calories = 692 Calories = 709 Calories = 364 Calories = 646 Calories = 583 Total Daily Calories = 2994 Breakfast 7:30-8:00am Calories = 403 Brunch 12:00-12:30pm Calories = 319 Lunch 10:00-10:30am Calories = 88 Dinner 7:00-8:00pm Calories = 87 Pre-Workout 45 minutes Before Workout Calories = 150 Post-Workout Immediately After Workout Calories = 322 Total Daily Calories = 1369 Adult Weight Loss Diet It is a common misconception that fat is not needed of totally bad for the body. Fats contain Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) needed to assist in the regulation of oxygen levels and assist in the function of the immune system. However as this diet aims to lose body fat stores, fats content is restricted due to fats high calorie content per gram (9calories per gram) The goal of this diet is to lose weight; to lose fat weight. This is ONLY ONE EXAMPLE of one diet which may aid in the loss of weight and must be used in conjunction with regular exercise. The times listed for each meal may be variable to change depending on sleeping patterns, daily agendas etc but spacing between meals should be about 2-3 hours. The diet is designed for an middle-aged man:
40-50 year old
178 centimetres tall
90 kilograms
With a maintenance calorie count of about 2,000
Very little if not any daily exercise The plan will decrease daily calorie intake about 25% which for the above dieter of 2,000 calorie maintenance is 500 calories per day. If this sudden decrease in food is too much for the dieter to handle, the daily decrease should be staggered, decreasing intake by between 50 and 100 calories per day. Carbohydrates make up the majority of calorie intake as they are the main source of energy to the body. They are eaten in greater proportions during breakfast as a good start to the day and in the pre workout meal for energy during training. Fibre is found in foods such as fruits, vegetables, beans etc. These foods are preferable in diets as they keep the dieter fuller for longer without having excessive calorie contents. They are high in volume, take longer the chew and are more satisfying as they take longer to digest. Fruit and vegetables are recommended to create a large proportion of a diet due to their high water and fibre content, making them hard to overeat. Exercise is just as if not more important than dieting in weight loss as it essential to the burning of calories (fat). The type of exercise which is recommended for fat loss are mainly cardio centred exercises like running, swimming, cycling or rowing. Fibre Carbohydrates Fat Exercise Fad diets have specific characteristics which distinguish them from legitimate dieting techniques:
Often promise a ‘quick fix’ of immediate weight loss
Promote a ‘magic’ food of combination of foods which usually suppress hunger or directly induce weight loss
Severely restricts or excludes specific foods/food groups
Makes claims based on testimonials from dieters or often celebrities, or results from scientific studies The Grapefruit Diet Cabbage Soup Diet “Carbohydrates have many fundamental roles in the body, the most important being the primary source of energy for the body cells” (M. Hoang, 2003) Glucose is produced by the body from carbohydrates, and is the primary source of energy in many cells. Due to extensive publicity, low carb diets have become increasingly popular among dieters. Low Carbohydrates Diets Weight Management The three video clips below are adapted from a YouTube advertisement for a healthcare product called 'BiosLife Slim'. The information in Part 1 of the video shows how the body uses energy from glucose and fatty acids in body cells. Part 2 explains the effect and relationship of insulin and the ability of the body to burn and use energy (glycogen) and fat (essential fatty acids) as fuel for exercise and basic metabolic processes. Part 3 provides 5 recommendations/adaptations which can be made to daily life to achieve weight loss. Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 The next video is an introduction to the composition of the body. It includes the 2 main measurements of body composition in Body Fat Percentage and Body Mass Index as well as how these measurements are calculated. The video also explains the basics of nutrition including the concepts of calories, energy ins and outs and the effect or energy intake and expenditure on weight gain/loss Insert Video Here Muscle Growth Supplements Endurance (Triathlon)
Athlete Team (Soccer)
Athlete Whole-grain cereal, low-fat milk and fruit. Each of these foods are key to energy needs as they all contain the energy needed to sustain the body throughout the day. Whole-grain cereal provides the majority of carbohydrate (energy) needs for the day. Low-fat milk is a good source of calcium and more importantly protein without the fat of full cream milk which for the athlete is ideal to maintain a low fat diet. Fruit provides the necessary vitamins for daily functions such as b vitamins and other nutrients such as riboflavin, vitamin C, potassium etc Breakfast meals should also contain protein and only contain small if not any fats and oil content. The carbohydrates eaten during breakfast are stored in your muscles as glycogen. This glycogen is used by the body to fuel muscle movements and is stored in the muscles until it is needed; being transported to the muscles through the blood. Once glycogen stores in the blood are depleted, the body takes further stores from the muscles for fuel. Protein is paramount to the growth and strength of muscles and hence should be consumed in each meal to maintain and develop healthy muscle growth and function. Breakfast should also include sufficient amounts of water for hydration purposes with 1-3 cups recommended for consumption Triathletes should break their diets up into three phases.
off season
race season
tapering

The main difference between in reference to energy needs is the carbohydrate intake of the athlete. On average a person training for a triathlon should be consuming in 2-3 grams of carbs per kilogram of body weight. For example a 100 kg person should consume between 200-300 carbs per day. As well as the 3 major meals of breakfast, lunch and dinner, the athlete should also eat a high carbohydrate meal 2-3 hours before a training session and then another high protein meal afterward, possibly the inclusion of a protein supplement such as a Whey Protein Shake. A week before an event the athlete should slightly increase their carbohydrate intake to 4-5 grams of carbs per kilogram of body weight; an increase of no more than 3 grams per kilo of weight. This then stores carbohydrates in the muscles for use during the event, being stored in the form of glycogen which is the energy used for bodily movements. The most important rule in a tri-athlete’s energy needs is not to make any major changes to his/her diet on the day of/leading up to an event. The only difference is that breakfast should be high carbohydrate. low fat and low sugar with moderate amounts of protein. There should be little or nothing eaten within an hour of an event. Lunch is an intermediate meal between breakfast and dinner. It should contain a meal high in protein for muscle development and fibre to keep the athlete full until his/her next meal. No or very little carbohydrates should be eaten here as they would only contribute to a caloric excess as the carbs from breakfast are designed to be large enough for total daily energy needs. An example of a healthy lunch meal is a tin of baked beans (fibre) with a glass of milk and banana (protein). Chicken, salted sweet potato and mixed vegetables. Dinner is usually the last meal eaten before sleep where the body is inactive for up to 12 hours. It should still contain protein in this meal chicken, sodium in the salted potatoes to replace sodium stores lost from sweat and carbohydrates like rice or pasta. These meals should be relatively low in calories as less calories are burnt while sleeping and these unburnt calories will be stored as fat. Too large a meal may affect the athlete’s performance the next day as the excess food eaten has not been properly of fully digested, leaving the athlete feeling nauseous. The meal should also include moderates amount of water; between 1 and 2 cups. Yogurt and granola. Snacks should be light and not containing much fats, but it may be a time to consume moderates amount of fat into the body. fat can be used as an energy source when atp and glucose sources have been dispensed. Fats are also healthy for the skin and have a role in regulating body functions. they carry vitamins A, D, E and K and certain antioxidants. this could also include having a hydrating drink for say water. Breakfast Lunch Dinner Snack The base of the diet
consists of the inclusion
of half a piece of
grapefruit or glass of
grapefruit juice with
the consumption of
every meal along with
the inclusion of
protein from mainly
meats and eggs. It
restricts few foods shown
on the image right.
The diet also insists on
eating till full and
unlike many diets sets a
MINIMUM quantity of
food for each meal other
than a maximum. The diet is based on the idea that the grapefruit contains fat burning enzymes. Unfortunately, there are no explanations for how the mysterious grapefruit enzyme works and why it is only contained in grapefruit and not other citrus fruits. No scientific studies to date have confirmed this statement. The fruit however does promote insulin levels which in turn makes the person feel fuller faster and therefore eat less, consuming less calories. The diet is designed to promote fast weight loss which generally returns as soon as the dieter finishes or ceases the diet and like the Cabbage Soup Diet, the weight lost is primarily from fluids and not fat. Low carbohydrate diets contribute to suppressing sugar cravings and decreasing overall starch intake, which affects the body’s serotonin levels which making an individual feel less tired and more energized. After a meal, carbohydrates are broken down in the small intestine and glucose is released into the bloodstream which triggers the pancreas to secrete the hormone insulin. If there are low levels of insulin, there will be more fatty acids in the bloodstream and less in the body tissue resulting in the use of fatty acids as energy instead of glucose (burning of fat). This approach to weight loss may succeed for a short period of time, yet there are many disadvantages to this method of losing weight as can be seen in this image --> Thank you for Watching hope you Thoroughly Enjoyed it
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