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Copy of Energy Concept Map
Transcript of Copy of Energy Concept Map
Energy Kinetic Energy Exergonic Reaction Endergonic Reaction Coupled Reaction Enzymes Substrate Active Site Allosteric Regulation Competitive Inhibition Metabolic Pathways Metabolism Coenzymes Energy released during motion First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is never created or destroyed, only transformed Second Law of Thermodynamics In producing energy, matter goes from more ordered to less ordered The measure of the amount of disorder in a system A reaction where the reactants have less energy than the products, so energy is gained A chemical reaction where an endergonic reaction is powered by an exergonic reaction A protein that speeds up, or helps to start, a chemical reaction Substance that the enzyme is working on, to break down Area where the substrate binds, and where the substrate is transformed The regulation of an enzymes activity by a molecule binding to a part other than the active site When a toxin binds to an enzymes substrate instead of the correct molecule, so the enzyme can not function properly Steps controlled by an enzyme that make a product or complete a process in an organism The sum of all chemical reactions performed by an organism, and aided by enzymes Help enzymes by binding with them, other than amino acids Autotrophs Organisms that gain their energy from the sun, minerals, air, or other non-living sources Photosynthesis The ability to move against an opposing force Uses light energy from the sun to convert it to chemical energy, stored in sugar Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum of all light produced, both visible and non-visible Visible Light The part of the electromagnetic spectrum that is absorbed by plants during photosynthesis, the blues and the reds are absorbed, the greens are reflected Chloroplasts Holds organelles used during photosynthesis in plants and algae Stomata The pores on the outside of the leaves that let CO2 and H20 vapors in and out Stroma Liquid within the chloroplast Thylakoids Network of membranes that are active in the photosynthesis process, located in the stroma Grana Stacks of thylakoid sacs Thylakoid Compartment Interior fluid area of the thylakoid Pigments Molecules that absorb the visible light from the sun, within the thylakoid membrane Chlorophyll a The most common pigment found in the thylakoid Light Reaction The first part of photosynthesis, takes place in the thylakoid Calvin Cycle The second half of photosynthesis, takes place in the stroma Carbohydrates Formed during the calvin cycle, from energized electrons, sugar, and CO2 Ribulose Biphosphate (RuBP) The starting sugar, combined with CO2, making a carbohydrate Rubisco Enzyme that helps to bring RuBP together with CO2 Photorespiration When the rubisco enzyme attaches with Oxygen instead of CO2 Photosystems Molecules in the thylakoid membrane that collect solar energy Primary Electron Acceptor The first molecule that receives the solar energy absorbed Reaction Center Where chlorophyll a molecules absorb and change solar energy to chemical energy Redox Reactions Reaction where electrons are transferred from one molecule to another Oxidation The loss of electrons during a redox reaction, during photosynthesis chlorophyll molecules are oxidized Reduction The gaining of electrons during a redox reaction, during photosynthesis the primary electron acceptor is reduced Electron Transport Chain Used to transport electrons between photosystems NADP+ Comes into the electron transport chain, after the photosystems NADPH NADP+ becomes this so that it can act as a transporter of electrons to the calvin cycle Oxygen A by-product of the light reactions that diffuses through the stomataa Water (H2O) Needed to power the light reactions by providing the electrons needed, once broken up G3P (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate) Product of the RuBP being energized by ATP and NADPH from the light reactions, becomes the building block of glucose C4 Photosynthesis Type of photosynthesis where carbon dioxide molecules go through a C4 pathway before going to the calvin cycle, a different enzyme other than rubisco is used, that only connects to carbon dioxide CAM Photosynthesis Used in dry, hot climate, the stomata are closed during the day and only open to C4 molecules at night, the sun is needed to power the calvin cycle during the day Heterotrophs Gain energy and nutrients from other organisms Cellular Respiration Chemical reactions that release the energy of organic compounds, heterotrophs and autotrophs use this to gain energy, both aerobic and anaerobic Glucose During cellular respiration, the glucose molecule is oxidized Oxygen Oxygen is reduced during cellular respiration Glycolysis The first step in cellular respiration, the breaking down of the glucose molecule Pyruvic Acid The product of Glycolysis, after the glucose is split it becomes this NAD+ Gains electrons and hydrogen ions during the glycolysis process NADH What NAD+ becomes after gaining electrons, carries electrons to other steps in cellular respiration Mitochondria The organelle where cellular respiration takes place Glycogen How carbohydrates store energy, they break down into glucose to release energy Acetyl CoA Water is added to pyruvic acid to cause it to become this, carbon dioxide is released Krebs Cycle Acetyl CoA is used during this cycle, NAD+ becomes NADH and carries electrons to the next step. FAD+ Similar to NAD+, gains electrons during the Krebs Cycle FADH What FAD+ becomes during the Krebs Cycle after gaining electrons Electron Transport Chain The final step in cellular respiration, NADH provides the electrons needed. Hydrogen Ions Travel back and forth through the inner membrane of the mitochondria, using energy provided by the electron transport chain ATP Synthase Powered by the hydrogen ions as they flow through, spins and produces ATP by adding a phosphate to ADP Water During the electron transport chain, hydrogen ions combine with oxygen to make water, which is a major by-product of this Fermentation Uses only glycolysis to make energy because it does not use oxygen, can be alcoholic or lactic acid ATP Total ATP produced by cellular respiration is 38, with glycolysis making two, krebs cycle making two, and the electron transport chain with ATP synthase makes 34 Carbon Cycle The process of carbon diffusing into the atmosphere Greenhouse Gas A gas that affects our Earth and is eventually located in the atmosphere Carbon Dioxide One greenhouse gas that is becoming more prevalent in our atmosphere Marine Life The higher amounts of carbon in our atmosphere are negatively harming marine life because many shelled animals cannot grow their shells back if there is too much carbon is stored as is released as is the study of energy is lost during energy is gained during combines with exergonic during combines with endergonic during is aided by is aided by is aided by are helped by attaches to binds in cannot work during are controlled by helps establish effects the amount of is explained in is explained in is shown through does not bind to happens within first step is happens in stack into are located in is inside is part of are in the use the is broken down during are in most common is by-product is diffuse through product is starts as brings electrons to transports electrons between product is is part of is energized to become helps make absorbs energy in can end up in uses this to gain energy is part of can take place as can take place as is part of is part of is is happens in and around stores energy as is a building block of first step is breaks down becomes product gains electrons during becomes carries electrons to provides energy to powers important by-product reacts with becomes goes through twice gains electrons during becomes breaks down into produces releases uses uses used in combines with energized hydrogen ions making during cellular respiration, is is is gained by plants through by-product is greatly affects is a can harm Ocean Acidification reduces leads to Fossil Fuels burning leads to increases in