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Amanda Ramadhanti

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Transcript of Weather

The Atmosphere
What tools and instruments do weather forecasters use to make predication about the weather?
Forecasting Weather
El Nino
How do the ocean cycles affect the weather?
Japan's Deadliest Tsunami
Weather-by Amanda
What is the difference between weather and climate?
WEATHER is the condition of the atmosphere at a certain place and time. Regional or local weather forecasts includes information such as, temperature, winds, cloudiness, humidity, precipitation, air pressure, or other changes over a few days.

CLIMATE is the average temperature of the atmosphere over a period time and in a specific region, usually, it is recorded over a thirty year period. Climate information includes statistical weather information that inform us about the normal weather, as well as the less common weather
for a certain location.
Weather is an important part of our lives. A scientist who studies the weather is called meteorologist. A meteorologist studies air, wind, rain and makes forecasts about weather. These are some of the tools and instruments that Meteorologist use to forecast weather.
On earth common weather
includes rain, wind, snow, fog and dust storms. Less common weather
includes natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions earthquakes, avalanches, tornadoes and cyclones. Weather is controlled by the heat, moisture, air pressure and wind in the air.
The earth is surrounded by the atmosphere, which is the only thing that protects us from the radiation of the sun, toxic gas and falling meteors. It is an invisible thin layer of mixed gasses which makes up the air we breathe. The atmosphere consists of 5 layers, the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.
The troposphere is the closest layer of the atmosphere to the earth. Most of the clouds you see are located in the troposphere, this is also the layer of the atmosphere where weather usually occurs.
Major Weather Phenomenons
Thunder and Lightning
Lightning is a bright flash of electricity produced by a thunderstorm. All thunderstorms produce lightning and they are very dangerous, each year Lightning causes up to 75–100 deaths, they are more threatening than Hurricanes and Tornadoes.

Lightning is an electric current charged from the tiny particles of frozen raindrops from the clouds. Many scientist believe that each of these frozen raindrops produces electricity.
Lightning is the only thing hotter than the sun.
Tornadoes & Hurricanes

La Nina
A tornado is an ominous destructive wind storm occurring on land, which resembles a funnel shaped cloud made out of debris. It is capable of destroying buildings, vehicles, houses and trees, The most violent tornadoes can reach wind speeds of up to 300 mph. Most tornadoes form from thunderstorms, 1000 tornadoes are reported all around the world in an average year. A tornado is approximately 1.5 kilometers wide, and sometimes even less.
What causes weather?
El Nino is a climate pattern where the water in the Pacific Ocean near the equator gets hotter than usual, and affects the atmosphere and weather around the world. El Nino are associated high air pressure air masses, which is warmer, while La Nina accompanies low air pressure air masses, which is colder. Many people think that El Niño is just a weather event, it can at times have a major global economic impact. A single extreme El Niño event, can effect up to billions of people world wide. With droughts and bushfires in Australia, including other countries that borders the Indian Ocean, farms and other productive land can be devastated causing produce and food shortages. El Nino climate conditions occur every few years. El Nino is derived from a Spanish word meaning Little boy.
La Nina is a Spanish name meaning little girl. Essentially, a La Nina event is the opposite of an El Nino event. La Nina event causes cold and wet natural disasters such as flooding and blizzards. La Nina accompanies low air pressure, meaning that is colder. During a period of a La Nina event, the sea surface temperature across the equatorial Eastern Central Pacific Ocean will be lower than normal by 3–5 degrees Celsius.

Tsunami is a high tide wave created by tectonic plates, it is in the top ten most dangerous natural disasters. It occurs when a sudden movement of the ocean because of volcanic eruptions, landslides and earthquake makes the tectonic plate collide against each other.

A Tsunami is generated by earthquakes, undersea landslides, volcanic eruptions, explosions or meteorites. Japan is one of the most Tsunami threatened country in the world, since Japan lies between 4 tectonic plates. The word tsu-na-mi is derived from a Japanese word meaning Harbour wave
Dust Storms
Bibliography- 31 references
A blizzard is a long-lasting snowstorm, with wind excess of 35 mph, it occurs in a period of less than half a kilometer for more than 3 hours. You need three things to have a blizzard, cold air at the surface, lots of moisture, and wind.

Warm air must rise over cold air so a Blizzard can occur. Blizzards can be a life threatening issue, it also can cause a variety of other problems. Power outages can occur due to strong winds and heavy snow. Pipes can freeze and regular fuel sources may be cut off.
El Nino and La Nina are complex weather patterns resulting from variations in ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.
The stratosphere is one of the layers Earth's atmosphere. It is the second layer of the atmosphere as you go upward. The troposphere, the lowest layer, is right below the stratosphere. The next higher layer above the stratosphere is the mesosphere.The bottom of the stratosphere is 10 km above the ground .The stratosphere has a very dry air there contains little
water vapor
. Because of this, few clouds are found in this layer, almost all clouds occur in the lower, more humid layer such as the troposphere. Air is roughly a thousand times thinner at the top of the stratosphere than it is at sea level
What is weather forecasting?
Weather makes a huge impact in our lives. A scientist who studies the weather is called a meteorologist. A meteorologist studies rain, wind and air and makes forecasts about weather. Weather forecasting is a prediction of what weather will be like in an hour, tomorrow, or next week, This involves a combination of
, computer models, and a knowledge of patterns and trends. By using these methods, reasonable and accurate forecasts can be made up to seven days and more.

Meteorologist works together from worldwide weather stations, these stations have many different tools and equipments. Thermometers measure how hot or cold the air is, Weather vanes tell the direction from which the wind is blowing. Some weather stations use radar to find faraway places where rain is falling. Weather balloons are used to find out weather conditions high in the air. They send back radio messages measuring temperature and how wet the air is. Another important tool is the satellite, it carries television cameras that takes pictures of the earth. Clouds, snow, and ice can be seen in these pictures, which are sent back to the weather stations on the ground. When all the information is gathered, meteorologist put it into a computer to form a weather forecast. When all The In Many people depend on knowing what the weather will be.
Weather balloon
Weather Vanes
Rain Gauge
Weather vanes tell the direction from which the wind is blowing.
Weather balloons are used to find out weather conditions high in the air, They send back radio messages measuring temperature and how wet the air is.
Satellites carries television cameras that takes pictures of the earth. Clouds, snow, and ice can be seen in these pictures, which are sent back to the weather stations on the ground. When all the information is gathered, meteorologist put it into a computer to form a weather forecast.
What Effects weather?
Mountains has a huge impact to weather. There are two parts of a mountain, one side is called the wayward, also known as windward, and the other, leeward. Whenever it is raining, the wayward side gets the rain. As a cloud goes to the
of the mountain, it keeps raining until there is no more particles of water in the cloud. Now, as the cloud starts
to the other side of the mountain, there is no more
. So, the leeward side of the mountain doesn't receive any rain, which means the flat ground of the leeward side of the mountain is humid and dry.
Why Do we have Seasons?
The reason why we have seasons such as, Winter, Spring, Summer and Autumn is because of the earths tilt. The line between the North and South poles that goes through the center of the Earth, isn't vertical, it is tilting over by about 22.3 degrees from the earths perpendicular line. In our summer, the north pole is pointing towards the Sun. In winter, the Earth is on the other side of the Sun so the North Pole is pointing away from the Sun.In Winter, the sun seems to go closer to the Horizon, In Summer the sun seems to avoid the Horizon which means when the sun is lower down on the horizon, there's less time for it to travel between the horizons. Which means that there will be less distance for the sun to travel, so the sun rises later and sets earlier which also mans there will be less
The two sides of the Mountain
An example of a statistical climate information over the period of 1 year
An example of weather information during the period of 7 days
Volcano Eruption Experiment

*Red food color

*Warm water

*Foil tray

*Dish washing detergent
*Baking Soda

*Sticky tape

*Plastic Bottle
Firstly, you will need to make the volcano itself. Place the small bottle with the sticky tape on to the foil tray to secure it, After, compress the news paper and adjust it on the bottle until it makes a funnel shaped figure, secure with sticky tape. Mold the clay on top of the bottle until it also makes a funnel shape figure, add water as you go so it will be easier to mold the clay. This is optional, but you can decorate by adding texture with a sponge and painting it. Leave it to dry overnight so the clay hardens, when this process is done, the Volcano is ready to erupt just with a few more steps.
Making the Volcano
Volcano Eruption Procedure
*Vinegar *Baking Soda *Washing Detergent

*Red Food coloring *Warm water
In order to make your volcano erupt, you will need to pour warm water until the bottle is slightly more than half way full and add a few drops of red food color. Add 6 drops of washing detergent to the bottle and add 2 table spoons of baking soda to the content. Slowly put the vinegar in the bottle and watch it erupt.
An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed, and is a common weather station instrument. It is developed in the 1500s by an Italian Architect called Leon Battista Alberti.

A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure. In 1645 an Italian mathematician named Torricelli
the principle of the barometer by using a long glass tube closed at one end, which he put upside down in an open container holding liquid. Now, in the 21st century, there is another design of a barometer which doesn't
of water.
A thermometer is used to measure the temperature of liquids, solids, or gases. A thermometer contains a liquid, usually mercury or an alcohol solution in a
whose volume depends on the temperature, as the temperature
, the volume
A rain gauge is an instrument used by meteorologists to measure rain in a certain amount of time. It usually measures in millimeters.
An avalanche is a mass of snow, that collapses on to the ground, it may contain soil, ice, rocks and uprooted trees. The height of a mountain, the steepness of its slope, and the type of snow lying on it all help
of an avalanche.

Avalanches forms when an unstable group of snow breaks away from a mountain-side and descends downhill. The snow picks up speed as it rushes down the mountain, as it goes down, the group of snow gets larger and larger. Avalanches have been known to reach speeds of 394 kilometers per hour.
Flood is a natural occurrence where a dry area suddenly gets
under water. Some floods can occur suddenly and recedes quickly, other floods take days or even months to recede and retrieve the damage. When floods happen in an area that people live, the water carries along objects like houses, cars, bridges, furniture and even people.

It can wipe away farms, trees and many more heavy items. Basically, the natural behavior of water is that it descends from higher ground to lower ground. This means if there is a higher ground near a lower ground, the lower ground is a lot more likely to experience floods.
Water Sprouts
Storm surges

Mud slides
Fog & Hail
The mesosphere is a layer of Earth's atmosphere. The mesosphere is directly above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere. It keeps going from about 50 to 85 km above sea level. Temperature
within this layer of the atmosphere. Some particles from meteors stays in the mesosphere, causing this layer to have a high concentration of iron and other metal atoms.
The exosphere is the highest layer of the atmosphere. It expands from the
of the thermosphere up to 10,000 km above sea level. Air atoms and molecules are
escaping to space from the exosphere. In this layer of the atmosphere, helium and hydrogen are the basic components of the Exosphere. This is the area where many satellites
the Earth.
It extends from the top of the mesosphere to over 690 km above sea level. It is the layer above the Mesosphere and below the Exosphere, It is the second highest layer of the atmosphere.
Onset years for El Nino cycles in Australia 1982
The 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohuku, which is a city in Japan, reached a magnitude of 9.0. It occurred on Friday 11th of March 2011, to be more precise, 14:46 pm In Japanese time. The earthquake is also referred as the Great East Japan Earthquake or the 2011 Tohuku Earthquake. It is the most powerful and deadliest earthquake ever recorded to hit Japan, and it is also the fifth most powerful in the world since earthquakes were recorded, which is in the 1900s. The tsunami occurred in Japan within minutes of the Earthquake.

The earthquake released powerful tsunami waves that reached the height of up to 40.5 meters and at speeds that approached about 800 km per hour. The reason why Japan receives stronger and more often earthquakes and tsunamis, is because Japan lies between 4 tectonic plates. Tectonic plates are most famously known for being the source of earthquakes which sometimes leads to tsunamis.

On the 10th of February 2014, 3 years after the tsunami occurred, A Japanese Agency report confirmed there were 15.887 deaths, 6.150 injured and 2.615 people missing from the Tsunami and Earthquakes. Approximately 127.290 buildings totally collapsed and another 272.788 buildings half collapsed. The economic cost was 235 billion US dollars, which makes it the most expensive natural disaster in worlds history. The earthquake of Tohuku only lasted approximately 6 minutes, but it destructed many properties and buildings.

The Japanese Prime minister, Naoto Kan, said " In the 65 years after the WWII (World War Two) this is the toughest and most difficult crisis for Japan"

Two years after the Earthquake, about 300,000 people who lost their homes were still living in temporary housing.
Clean, fresh water is vital to life, but droughts will make it
in regions that are already semi-deserts. A drought is an unusually long period where there is not enough water to achieve the needs of people, plants and animals. In Australia, droughts can last for many years and can affect people who live on farms, inland and in coastal areas.

Droughts can continue even when there has been some rainfall. Droughts can cause food crops to dry ad farm animals to die because of the limited access of water. During droughts, it is possible for other natural disasters to occur, such as heatwaves and bush fires.
A storm surge is created by weather systems forcing water onshore over a generally limited stretch of coastline. It will normally build up over a period of a few hours, as the cyclone or similar weather system approaches. In the past, large death tolls have resulted from the rise of the ocean associated with many of the major hurricanes that have made landfall.

Storm surge is produced by water being pushed toward the shore by the force of the winds moving around the storm. The impact on surge of the low pressure associated with intense storms is minimal in comparison to the water being forced toward the shore by the wind.

Reading Weather Maps
A Hygrometer is a device that
you the
of the atmosphere. It can indicate the percentage of moisture in the air, the amount of moisture in the air, or both.
When a main symbol is used on a weather map it is called a front, the front represents the boundary between the two air masses and appears on the weather map as the line with semi-circles or triangles attached. There are four different types of fronts most commonly seen in a weather map, a Cold front, a Warm front, an Occluded front and a Stationary front.
Cold front
Warm front
Occluded front
Stationary front
Reading Weather Maps
A cold front is symbolized by a blue line with triangles pointing towards the direction of the movement. A cold front is a boundary between two air masses, one cold and the other warm, it forces the colder air to replace the warmer air.
A warm front is symbolized by a red curve with semi-circles pointing to the direction of the movement. A warm front is the border where a moving warm air mass is replacing a cold air mass. Most of the time, Warm fronts move more slowler than the cold fronts, it is because it's harder for warm air to force against the cold air.
A stationary front is symbolized as an alternated warm and cold front symbols. A stationary front is a boundary between two air masses which aren't moving, because both two masses are not strong enough to push the other. This process can be doing the same thing repeatedly in a given area for days!
Weather maps are also known as the synoptic chart, a synoptic chart is one of an example of an isoline map. Isobars are the lines that are drawn around either the "H" or "L", it represents equal atmospheric pressure drawn. Each line represents an air pressure of a given value.
Low pressure areas
Colder air will sink in High pressure areas, because it is heavier than warm air. This process makes air pressure higher. Once the air reaches the surface, the air spreads out. On a weather map, areas of high pressure, are classified by the letter "H", these areas are associated with little wind and clear skies, which determines that the weather is going to be nice and sunny. High pressure areas with closed isobars, increase the pressure towards the center.
Warmer air will rise in Low pressure areas, because it is less dense than cold air. Rising air makes air pressure lower. As the mass of air rise from the surface, other air must come in to replace it. Areas of Low pressure are classified by the letter "L", and are associated with cumulonimbus clouds, rain and high winds, which determines that the weather is going to be a rainy day.
On a synoptic chart, better known as the Weather map, decreases pressure towards the center when in Low pressure areas.
High pressure areas

In order for a Dust storm occur, also known as a Haboob, there has to be a strong updraft so some of the precipitation suspends, it then starts to
and cool down. Once the water particles cool down enough, the water particles ends up getting heavier than the air around it, so it very rapidly falls. This creates a strong downdraft along with some precipitation , which sends wind coming out in all directions. This process is known as the gust front. It then starts to move out of the rain picking up all the dust in the area, so the longer this occurs, the more dust it picks up. Sydney's worst Dust storm ever recorded was on 2009, it was the worst Dust storm in Sydney since 1939.
Impacts of El Nino
Bush fires
What and who does it affect?
Properties and Houses
Farms and other productive lands
Forests and Rainforest
Insurance companies
In the period of 1982 to 1983 El Nino event, was the strongest of the century, probably even the worst in the recorded history. This El Nino event occurred across alot of countries other than Australia. During that period, wind reversed direction, its effect were long lasting as well. This event caused 13 billion dollars of damage to properties and productive lands and is also blamed for 2,000 deaths.

Australia, Indonesia and Africa suffered through droughts, bush fires and dust storms. Eastern Australia experienced its worst ever droughts. Since Australia is the driest
continent in the world, it has experienced many long lasting droughts resulting huge losses of crops, land and livestock. El Nino have been the cause of many droughts over the eastern and northern parts of Australia. Total losses were estimated $3000 million during the period of the
El Nino cycle. Research determined that severe drought affects some part of Australia about once every 18 years.

The dry conditions, which had remained since 1979, created the perfect conditions for the horrific Ash Wednesday bush fires. The fires raged through South Australia and Victoria, causing losses of 76 lives and 1000 farms. It is generally agreed that the widespread bush fires destroyed the enormous bush fire of Ash Wednesday on 16 February 1983 were the consequence of the drought conditions occurring in Australia. On 16 February 1983, temperatures well over 40°C drove huge fires across Victoria and South Australia. In total, seventy people died, 47 in Victoria and 28 in South Australia, and nearly 2,500 houses were destroyed.
A Hurricane is a huge air mass that can reach up to 1609.3 kilometers across. A hurricane, also known as a cyclone or typhoon is an ominous, gargantuan, swirling storm with heavy rains and strong winds. It consists an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth, depending on what hemisphere were in, for example, if the Hurricane is in the Northern Hemisphere the Hurricane would spin anti-clockwise, and if the Hurricane is in the Southern Hemisphere, the Hurricane would spin in a clockwise motion. Hurricanes has a similar affect as a Tornado, but it affects larger amounts of building and properties, since it travels further than tornadoes.
What affects weather? - Yahoo Answers
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Bureau-Bureau of Meteorology - The Aneroid Barometer
Bureau-Bureau of Meteorology - The Aneroid Barometer
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Zoom in to see clearer
Heavy Droughts in Australia from the El Nino
Ash Wednesdays bush fires
Stationary front
Occluded front
Warm front
Cold Front
During the Tsunami
After the Tsunami and Earthquake occurred.

An occluded front is a combination of two fronts that form when a cold front catches up and overtakes a warm front. It is symbolized as a purple line with semi-circles and triangles.
Rain Gauge
Weather balloon
Weather Vanes
Tectonic plates
A waterspout is a column of cloud filled wind rotating over natural made water. Even though its name, a waterspout is not filled with water from the ocean or lake. A waterspout
from a cumulus cloud. It does not "spout" from the water. The water inside a waterspout is formed by condensation in the cloud.
A Mudslide, also known as a landslide, is very similar to an avalanche, however, instead of a fast mass of snow that descends downhill, a mudslide is a fast moving mud that also descends down a steep slope. The debris may include water, mud, trees, rocks and even cars. Gravity is the main cause of a mudslide, however there are many factors that impacts the disaster of a mudslide, which includes, the steepness of the slope, water
, earthquakes,
, construction, volcanic and eruptions. Mudslides can also be
by natural disasters, for example fires, earthquakes, storms and volcanoes. These disasters are highly unpredictable and they are also very dangerous.
Fog is caused by tiny water droplets
in the air. The thickest fogs has a
to occur in industrial areas where there are many pollution particles on which water droplets can grow. Fog is a cloud that touches the ground. Fog can be thin or thick, meaning people will have difficulty seeing through it.

Hail is a form of
that falls from the sky as ice. The ice particles can range in size from small pea-sized pellets, to hailstones as large as a golf ball. Hail is especially damaging to crops in farms. Hails are caused when raindrops are lifted up into the atmosphere during a thunderstorm and then supercooled by temperatures below freezing, turning them into ice balls
Phenomenon – a fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen, especially one whose cause or explanation is in question.

Zenith – on top of something or someone

Descending – move or fall downwards.

Precipitation – rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls to or condenses on the ground.

Daylight – the natural light of the day.

Water vapor – the natural light of the day.

Observation – the action or process of closely observing or monitoring something or someone

Water Vapor – Water vapor is water in its gaseous state-instead of liquid or solid (ice). Water vapor is totally invisible. If you see a cloud, fog, or mist, these are all liquid water, not water vapor.

Regularly–at regular times or intervals.

Orbit – the curved path, usually elliptical, described by a planet, satellite, spaceship, etc. around a celestial body, as the sun.

Discovered – to see, get knowledge of, learn of, find, or find out; gain sight or knowledge of (something previously unseen or unknown.

Consist – to be comprised or contained.

Notifies – to inform (someone) or give notice to

Humidity – humid condition; moistness; dampness.

Increases – to become greater, as in number, size, strength, or quality
Click image to watch the video and watch it erupt!

Reservoir – a chamber for holding a liquid or fluid.

Inhabitant – a person or animal that takes over or lives in a place, especially as a permanent resident.

Evaporate – to give off moisture.

Possibility – something possible.

Submerge – to cover or overflow with water.

Scarce – insufficient to satisfy the need.

Saturating – to soak

Erosion – the process by which the surface of the earth is worn away by the action of water, glaciers, winds, waves, etc.

Generated – to bring into existence; cause to be.

Suspended – to keep from falling, sinking, forming a deposit, etc.

Tendency –
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