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Parkinson's Disease

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John Kelly

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Parkinson's Disease

Created and Presented by: Trevor Griffin, Tyler Rebello and John Kelly Parkinson's Disease What is Parkinson's disease? Neurons Parkinson's effects on Neurons and the Brain Living with Parkinson The History of Parkinson's Parkinson’s disease is a chronic and progressive movement disorder. In persons with Parkinson’s, neurons in the brain malfunction and die, causing a lack the chemical dopamine. This lack of nerve cells in the brain causes tremors of the hands, arms, legs, jaw and face. Slow movement, muscle stiffness, imbalance and lack of stability are also symptoms of Parkinson's patients. Parkinson's was discovered by an English physician James Parkinson in 1817. Parkinson's disease is a product of a dopamine deficiency in the brain. When 80% of dopamine is lost, the symptoms begin to surface (Espay, 2010). Originality this dessese was referred to as "shaking palsy" after the tremors present in Parkinson's patients. The disorder was eventually named after it's discoverer James Parkinson. Treatment The neurons affected are primarily the basal ganglia and the substantia nigra. Dopamine is produced in the substantia nigra and is then transmitted to the basal ganglia to control body movement. With the lack of dopamine, the body is unable to completely control body movement (Espay, 2010). Cause of Parkinson's Disease Disclaimer: The doctor featured in this video has a very funny lisp. Please act like mature boys and girls and do not bust out laughing when you hear him talk! Thank you! There is no definitive cause of Parkinson's. However, there are two generic causes of Parkinson's: environmental and genetic. The general population has a one to two percent of developing Parkinson's. However, in persons who have a direct relative (parent or sibling)are four to nine times more likely to developing Parkinson. Environmental exposure also plays a role in the aquizaton of Parkinson's. Some chemicals, such as Agent Orange, have been known to cause Parkinson's. Well water, pesticides and rural living are also contributing environmental factors to Parkinson's disease (Parkinson's Disease Foundation). Brain Loss of cells in parts of brain contribute to Parkinson's. Clumps of protein called alpha-synuclein, or "lewy bodies", are found in the mid-brain, brain stem and olfactory bulb; areas responsible for regulating non-motor functions such as taste, smell, and sleep regulation. This is a hallmark sign of Parkinson's disease. As a result, patients experience non motor symptoms before motor signs occur. Patients also experience deterioration in areas such as the Substantia Nigra (Parkinson's Disease Foundation). It is also believed that a depletion of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is linked to the delayed onset of symptoms associated with Parkinson's Disease. The disection of several Parkinson's patients' brains show an absence of both dopamine and norepinephine. Norepinephrine is essential for regulating dopamine producing neurons (Emory University). There is currently no cure for Parkinson's, so the treatment for this disease is to control the symptoms. Doctors primarily use medication to control muscle functions caused by a lack of dopamine. These drugs increase dopamine production of the brain and/or stimulate dopamine. Other medications are prescribed to Parkinson's patients to control cognitive function, alleviate pain,control autonomic dysfunctions and prevent sleep disorders. Strategies to living with Parkinson's Disease. The following are ways that Parkinson's patients can deal with their disease (these are recommended methods from the Parkinson's Disease foundation):
Strategies for living well may include:
Performing activities that may benefit you and your symptoms - painting, tai-chi, exercise – to take charge of your life with PD. Connect with the PD community and become informed about PD.
Managing nutrition and medications – to maintain the highest quality of daily living with PD.
Getting involved in advocacy, clinical trials, support groups, and educational conferences – to be both a benefactor and a participant in the community.
Planning ahead to maximize adaptation to this disease on your own terms; to make living well at home and work a priority at every point in the disease process by using assistive technologies, the expertise of allied professionals such as occupational therapists, physical therapists, speech therapists, and nutritionists, when needed (Parkinson's Disease Foundation). http://www.pdf.org/en/living_pd 1987 2011 Carlton Gobin was diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease at age 52 http://www.pdf.org/en/causes Carlton Edwin Gobin passed away on October 18th, 2011 after battling this disease for 25 years. 2005 The progression of Parkinson's Disease in Carlton Gobin 1990 Carlton had to stop working as a mechanic from the family garage. His fine motor skills were no longer there and he could no longer do the job that he had done for his entire life. The initial stages 2000 The progression of the disease in just 5 years. Carlton had to stop driving. He could no longer drive because the tremors did not allow him to drive straight. It also became hard for him to keep control of the wheel. 2002 2003 Carlton's wife Beverly had to stop working in order to care for him. Carlton could no longer stay by himself for the duration of a work day. Carlton was forced to give sell his horses and give up the hobby that he loved so much. (but because he could no longer have horses, he got two goats!) Carlton began attending Adult Day Care in order to give his wife a daily break and so he could keep active with other elderly people. 2006 2008 Carlton became wheelchair bound. His legs could no longer carry/support him. As a result, he had virtually no balance. 2009 Carlton could no longer feed himself on his own.Someone had to feed him his food because he did not have the strength or coordination to move his food to his mouth. In early September of 2011, Carlton was brought to the hospital because of pneumonia. From this point on, he could only eat foods with the consistency of honey.He would spend the rest of his life at a rehab center. Final stages and rapid deterioration Middle phases
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