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AP: Europeans Start Thinking About Things
Transcript of AP: Europeans Start Thinking About Things
-University system developed in Middle Ages which was exempt from Church or Monarchial authority.
-Exploration allows borrowing of ideas
-Reformation increases literacy
-In China, "Academy System" was all about memorization, NOT original ideas
-In Islamic world, Koran was seen to hold all wisdom especially after 1400s.
Scientific Revolution (15-1600s)
-Nicolaus Copernicus publishes "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres (1543)- states earth revolves around sun
-Galileo develops telescope and improves on Copernicus' findings
-Isaac Newton develops concept of gravity (late 1600s)
-Catholic church mostly cool with it. Protestants encourage it.
-Some resistance to Galileo (pressured to recant)
-Overall, these scientists were Christians who saw their work as illuminating God's perfect creation
-Over time, new ideas apply to Philosophy as well. In 1700s, Renaissance gives way to Enlightenment
-In the Enlightenment (or "Age of Reason"), individuals question not just scientific beliefs but traditions (religion, kings, etc) as well.
Philosophy and Religion
-Religion begins to be widely questioned in 1700s
-Many become deists (what's that?)
-Others became pantheists, who believe God is simply in nature (hippies)
Beyond the West
-While the rest of the world is exposed to European technology, ideas don't really catch on
-Chinese addicted to strict Confucianism. Islamic world ignores what cannot be found in Koran. Ottoman scholars refuse to translate works.
University of Oxford- 1200s
Government: Hobbes vs Locke
This little globe, nothing more than a point, rolls in space like so many other globes; we are lost in this immensity. Man, some five feet tall, is surely a very small part of the universe. One of these imperceptible beings says to some of his neighbors in Arabia or Africa: "Listen to me, for the God of all these worlds has enlightened me: there are nine hundred million little ants like us on the earth, but only my anthill is beloved of God; He will hold all others in horror through all eternity; only mine will be blessed, the others will be eternally wretched."